(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Markers"

MARKERS XXI 



• 




Gary Collison 



Markers XXI 



Annual Journal of 
the Association for Gravestone Studies 



Edited by 
Gary Collison 



Association for Gravestone Studies 
Greenfield, Massachusetts 




Copyright 2004 by 

Association for Gravestone Studies 

278 Main Street, Suite 207 
Greenfield, Massachusetts 01301 



All rights reserved 
Printed in the United States 



ISBN: 1-878381-14-8 
ISSN: 0277-8726 
LCN: 81-642903 



The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of the 

American National Standard for Information Sciences — Permanence of Paper 

for Printed Library Materials, ANSI Z39.48-1984. 



Cover Illustration: Malakiah Bonham (1811), Linganore U. M. Cemetery, 

Unionville, Frederick County, Maryland. Backdated gravestone carved by 

African American stonecarver Sebastian "Boss" Hammond. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

Obituary: Theodore Chase (1912-2003) 1 

Laurel Gabel 

Obituanj: Terry Jordan (1938-2003) 8 

Richard Francaviglia 

Carving a Path to Freedom: The Life and Work of 

African American Stonecarver Sebastian "Boss" Hammond 12 

Mary Ann Ashcraft 

Gravemarkers and Memorials of King Philip's War 40 

Tom and Brenda Malloy 

Judah Monis's Puzzling Gravestone as a Reflection 

of his Enigmatic Identity 66 

David Mayer Gradwohl 

In the Bronx with Melville 98 

Henry Hughes 

Museum in the Garden: Mount Auburn Cemetery 

and American Sculpture, 1840-1860 100 

Elise Madeleine Ciregna 

"In the Palm of Nature's Hand": Ralph Waldo Emerson's 

Address at the Consecration of Sleepy Hollow Cemetery 148 

Introduced and edited by Ronald A. Bosco and Joel Myerson 

Subject Index for Markers I-XX 174 

Compiled by Gary Collison 

The Year's Work in Cemetery and Gravemarker Studies: 

An International Bibliography 198 

Compiled by Gary Collison 

Contributors 212 

Index 214 



MARKERS: ANNUAL JOURNAL OF 
THE ASSOCIATION FOR GRAVESTONE STUDIES 

EDITORIAL BOARD 

Gary Collison, Editor 
Perm State York 



June Hadden Hobbs 

Assistant Editor 

Gardner-Webb University 

Tom Malloy 

Assistant Editor 

Mount Wachusett Community College 

Jessie Lie Farber 

Editor, Markers I, 

Mount Holyoke College 

Richard Francaviglia 
University of Texas at Arlington 

Laurel Gabel 



Richard E. Meyer 

Editor, Markers X-XX, 

Western Oregon University 

Barbara Rotundo 

State University of New York 
at Albany 

Julie Rugg 
University of York (UK) 

James A. Slater 

University of Connecticut 

David H. Watters 

Editor, Markers II-IV 

University of New Hampshire 



Wilbur Zelinsky 
The Pennsylvania State University 



With this issue, Markers begins a new era. When Dick Meyer took 
over as editor from Ted Chase following Markers IX (1992), our journal 
had already matured into one of the most distinguished publications 
in the relatively new field of material culture studies. Under Dick's 
guidance, it grew to include an increasing range of topics reflecting 
the diverse interests of AGS's growing membership. In 1995 he 
inaugurated an annual bibliography of recent scholarship, "The Year's 
Work in Gravemarker/ Cemetery Studies," which instantly became an 



indispensable aid to researchers. The eleven issues that Dick edited 
have set a standard of scholarly excellence that AGS can be proud of. 
It is a daunting task to follow Dick Meyer as editor. It is an equally 
daunting task to take over as editor in the first year that Markers is being 
distributed to all AGS members. It is also exciting. 

Although entirely by accident, the articles in this issue nicely reflect 
the diversity of interests which AGS has come to represent. Mary Ann 
Ashcraft's lead article belongs to the major strand of gravestone studies, 
the identification and study of the work of individual stonecarvers. 
Her study of Maryland slave and ex-slave stonecarver Sebastian "Boss" 
Hammond represents an important new discovery. Not only is Hammond 
one of the few Maryland stonecarvers to have been studied but he is also 
the first enslaved African American gravestone carver whose work has 
been positively identified. 

Two other essays demonstrate how the study of history and bio- 
graphy can be aided by the study of gravemarkers. Tom and Brenda 
Malloy use gravemarkers to tell the story of King Phillip's War, when 
thousands of New England settlers and Native Americans died, and 
how the war has been remembered at burial sites. David Gradwohl's 
essay on the gravemarker of Judah Monis shows how it is emblematic 
of Monis's complex life. A Jewish convert to Christianity, a member 
of the Harvard faculty, and a friend of the great Puritan divine Cotton 
Mather, Monis occupied a unique and enigmatic position in colonial 
New England society. 

Two other essays in this issue reflect the interest of many members 
in nineteenth-century rural cemeteries. Elise Ciregna's study of the role 
of sculpture in the early years of Mount Auburn Cemetery adds a new 
chapter to the story of our nation's cultural aspirations. The other essay 
highlights the delightful rural cemetery in Concord, Massachusetts, 
where the "Authors' Ridge" graves of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry 
Thoreau, Louisa May Alcott, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and other writers 
have become a site of pilgrimage for tens of thousands. Every member 
of AGS can cite (and some can even recite) the most famous American 
address at the dedication of a cemetery, Abraham Lincoln's address at 
Gettysburg National Cemetery. It is the most famous piece of American 
oratory. But even members of AGS would be hard pressed to name 
another prominent dedicatory address. Joel Myerson and Ron Bosco, 
two distinguished literary scholars, will change this with their edition of 



Ralph Waldo Emerson's "Address at the Consecration of Sleepy Hollow 
Cemetery." Their introduction places the Address and dedication 
ceremonies in the context of Emerson's extraordinary life. The Address 
itself offers a provocative reflection on the history and meaning of 
cemeteries that reminds us of why Emerson was known as the "Sage 
of Concord." Who else but Emerson could have surveyed the history of 
burial from the Egyptians to the modern era in a few pages? 

There are a number of visible and invisible changes in this issue of 
Markers. One change that anyone familiar with recent issues of Markers 
will recognize immediately is that Markers XXI has slimmed down 
considerably. To make it possible to send Markers to all members and for 
AGS to plan its total budget, it will be necessary to keep costs for Markers 
under or close to an annual budgeted amount. This means that unless 
the AGS membership grows substantially, future issues of Markers will 
probably run no more than 224 pages. To insure that each issue provides 
a good range of articles on a variety of topics, Markers will continue to 
seek manuscripts in the range of "fifteen to twenty-five double-spaced 
pages, inclusive of endnotes and appendices." As in the past, longer 
submissions "may be considered if they are of exceptional merit and if space 
permits." Given the new page limitation, however, it will be much more 
difficult to find room for significantly longer articles. Authors of longer 
studies are advised to consult with me well in advance of submitting 
a manuscript. (For details, see the revised "Notes for Contributors" at 
www.gravestonestudies.org/Markers. Queries, proposals, suggestions, 
and comments are welcome. Send them to Gary Collison, Markers Editor, 
PennState/ York J031Edgecomb Ave., York,PA17403;email: glc@psu.edu; 
fax: 771-717-4022. Email messages will usually get the most timely 
response.) 

Another significant change in Markers XXI will be found in the 
annual bibliography of scholarship, "The Year's Work in Cemetery and 
Gravemarker Studies," which filled more than fifty pages in Markers 
XX and was threatening to grow even larger (and even more costly to 
produce). For a description of the changes, see the explanation at the 
beginning of this year's bibliography. 

Markers is indexed in America: History & Life, Historical Abstracts, 
the Bibliography of the History of Art (a Research Library Group Eureka 
database), and the MLA International Bibliography. Coverage in the 



Bibliography of the Histoiy of Art began with Markers XVII (2000) and 
includes very brief abstracts. 

Looking over the subject index for volumes I through XX near the 
end of this year's issue, I feel very proud of the great range and high 
quality of scholarship published in Markers over the years. I need hardly 
add that Markers would not exist without the continuing support of 
the AGS membership and board of trustees and the wise guidance 
of the board of editors of Markers. I thank the members of the board 
of editors and other scholars for their generous and conscientious 
assistance in evaluating manuscripts. For invaluable support both 
tangible and intangible, I am grateful to Drs. Diane Disney, Dean of 
the Commonwealth College of the Pennsylvania State University, and 
Sandy Gleason, Associate Dean; and also to Drs. Joel Rodney, CEO, Perm 
State York, and Joseph P. McCormick III, Director of Academic Affairs. 
For assistance of various kinds, I am indebted to Andrea Carlin, Deirdre 
Folkers, Shawn Foley, Greg Knapp, Brenda Malloy, Jim O'Hara, Susan 
Olsen, Joseph P. Royer, Dave Turocy, Carole Wagner, Valerie White, and 
Leslie Perrin Wilson. Finally, I owe special thanks to Dick Meyer, whom 
I have called on more times than I can remember for assistance and 
guidance during this transition year. 



G.C. 



Theodore Chase (1912-2003) 




Obituary: Theodore Chase (1912-2003) 

Laurel Gabel 

Theodore (Ted) Chase, past president of the Association for 
Gravestone Studies, editor of Markers, author, legal advisor, and long- 
time friend and benefactor of AGS, died on January 20th, 2003, at his 
home in Dover, Massachusetts. His death, following a rapid decline 
caused by congestive heart failure, occurred just three days short of his 
ninety-first birthday. 

Dover, Massachusetts, Summer, 1980 

No impatient husband waited in an overheated car while I attempted 
a hasty gravestone photograph; no whining children kept up their 
running accusation: "Five minutes, Mom, you promised we would only 
stop for FIVE minutes!" Instead, on this pleasant midsummer morning 
I was alone inside the old stone walls of Dover's first burying ground. 
The leaning slates were silent and patient companions, watching while I 
worked leisurely to catalog the eighteenth-century carvings of John New, 
Daniel Hastings, John Dwight, and the ubiquitous Lamsons. By twelve 
o'clock, however, it was meltingly hot and heading toward muggy. Time 
to pack up scattered gear and return to the car. 

Dover's Highland Cemetery sits across from the Town Green on a 
slight hill that rises up to become a continuation of the older, street-facing 
graveyard. The newer and larger section of the cemetery was laid out in 
the nineteenth-century pattern, with winding, tree-lined roads and large 
family lots defined by single upright monuments of marble and granite, 
bearing familiar old New England names: Sargent, Sears, Cabot, Tisdal. 
The appeal of massive shade trees and green grass lured me up the hill 
toward the cool labyrinth of the newer section — a scenic circuit that 
eventually loops back down to the level of the original ancient burying 
ground and the cemetery's only exit gate. 

A small dark slate headstone made me stomp on the brakes. It sat 
alone along the back fringe of grass, away from the road. Even from afar 
the graceful calligraphic bird design of the tympanum looked familiar. 
It proved to be copied from the little 1775 Ann Cunningham stone (in 



Theodore Chase (1912-2003) 




Laurel Gabel 



Spencer, Massachusetts, illustrated in Harriette Forbes' s Gravestones of 
Early New England and the Men Wlw Made Them). The gravestone's acorn 
borders were borrowed from Boston-area markers carved in the early 
1700s. Whoever had commissioned this stone had to have had more than 
a passing familiarity with eighteenth-century New England gravestones! 
I jumped out of the car and headed toward the slate, but was again 
stopped short by the stone's unfinished inscription: "In Memory of / 

Theodore Chase / born 23 January 1912, / died / and his wife / 

Dorothea Newman / born 2 July 1911 / died . " Might one or the 

other of this couple still be alive to explain their new "old" stone and the 
story behind its charming motif? 

A cemetery workman suggested that I try the nearby Town Hall. 

Ted Chase? The clerk smiled. Why, yes, Ted was most definitely 
alive. A town favorite, a former Dover Selectman and member of the 
Town Council in years past, Mr. Chase was always talking about old 
graveyards; "not everyone's cup of tea," added the clerk. Ted would 
probably enjoy meeting anyone who shared his fascination with 
cemeteries. I raced home to call the number listed for Theodore and 
Dorothea Chase. The gentleman who answered the phone confirmed 
that he was indeed an alive and lively version of the very same Theodore 
Chase of the slate gravestone in question and, yes, he would be happy to 
tell me all he knew about early gravestones. He was a bit taken aback to 
be confronted — a mere twenty minutes later — by a middle-aged house- 
wife carrying a suitcase full of gravestone "show and tell" and bearing 
no trace of the young high school coed that (he later confessed) he had 
envisioned at the other end of the phone line. 

Before the day was out, Mr. Chase and I had spent a delightful 
afternoon and evening talking non-stop while we viewed slides of 
gravestones, pored over photo albums of gravestones, discussed every 
gravestone book in print at the time, and made amateur attempts to 
identify the carvers of each gravestone in his collection of rubbings, 
which by early evening had spread out over every inch of floor space 
in his library. With Dottie Chase's patient indulgence, gravestone 
conversation bubbled non-stop through the family's ritual four o'clock 
tea and was threatening a late dinner hour when I finally packed up 
my "visuals" and went home in the dark. It was the beginning of an 
enduring friendship. 

Theodore Chase was born January 23, 1912, in Concord, Mass- 



Theodore Chase (1912-2003) 



achusetts, where his family lived opposite the Old Manse, within easy 
walking distance of Concord's Old North Bridge and other historic 
landmarks. He was the youngest of three children born to Frederick 
Hathaway Chase, a local judge, and his wife Theodora Kyle. The infant 
Theodore was named in honor of his mother. In 1924, at the age of 
twelve, Ted left home to enter the Groton School, a rigorous preparatory 
school for boys. Looking back, he often credited those early formative 
years at Groton with his life-long love of learning. Homesick for family 
and hopeless at sports, he spent more and more time with his books. 
The result was a scholar. After his Groton graduation in 1930, Ted went 
on to Harvard (magna cum laude in 1934), and Harvard Law School (cum 
laude in 1937). He began his law career with the firm of Palmer and 
Dodge in Boston. Mr. Robert Dodge, the firm's founding partner, seeing 
something special in the new law graduate, described young Theodore 
as "a comer." In 1942, when just thirty years old, Ted fulfilled Mr. 
Dodge's expectations by becoming a partner in the well-respected law 
firm. He was to spend his entire law career in this firm. His much prized 
seventh-floor corner office looked out over King's Chapel Burying 
Ground, Boston's first place of burial. It was the perfect view. 

During World War II, Ted served with the United States Navy as a 
Lieutenant, and ultimately as Lieutenant Commander, attached to the 
Office of General Counsel for the Finance Division, which managed 
financing for U.S. Navy contracts. 

To many, Ted Chase was a holdover from a simpler, more gracious 
era. He was a true gentleman in every sense of the word. Honest, 
frugal, hard working, a child of privilege and its accompanying sense 
of responsibility, and overflowing with common sense, Ted was widely 
respected and admired for his intellect and integrity. Colleagues 
remember him as charming and persuasive, a wise man with a 
commanding presence, a leader who "spoke softly but usually got what 
he wanted." "He was maddeningly reasonable," one friend told me, 
"always confident that logic would lead the way." 

His grandson spoke lovingly of a grandfather who was "delightfully 
stalled in history." Ted had scant regard for the popular culture that 
swirled outside his orbit. "Doggie bags," self-serve gas pumps, fast 
food "roadhouses," computers, and other "new-fangled" gadgetry 
were unnecessary to his enjoyment of life. He was a man of Old World 
manners who dressed for dinner and received afternoon callers over tea. 



Laurel Gabt 



Ted lived his life with a Spartan discipline formed during his character- 
building years at Groton School. Even in his extreme old age, when a 
steamy shower might have eased the aching joints in his frail frame, 
Ted stuck to his old Groton School regime of short, bracing cold water 
constitutionals. "They do the trick," he insisted. He swam whenever he 
got the chance, played tennis well into his eighties, and enjoyed nothing 
more than his daily walks in the wooded acres surrounding his home. 
Eighty-five acres of Ted's woods were recently deeded to the Trustees 
of Reservations as a public woodland and wildlife area. Known as the 
Chase Woodland Preserve, the network of gently sloping paths winds 
for more than two miles through groves of native trees and along stone 
walls that mark former farm fields. 

Ted was a student of the country's early canal system, cathedral 
misericords, woodland management, modern art, antique firearms, 
history of any kind — and human nature. He and Dottie traveled 
frequently and his journals of these vacation explorations are 
colorful and informative reading. When he was delighted by 
something, it was "really swell" or just "peachy"; displeasure was 
registered with an exaggerated scowl and a disgusted, but usually 
private, "damn!" 

Ted's character, presence, and personality made him a leader in 
many community organizations such as the Greater Boston United 
Way and the United Community Services of Boston. As a member of 
the Massachusetts Board of Regional Community Colleges, he was 
instrumental in establishing fifteen junior colleges in the state during his 
tenure, an accomplishment of which he was especially proud. He served 
as a trustee of Northfield Mount Hermon School and of the Groton 
School, chairing the committee that voted to convert the all-male school 
to a co-educational institution. Other committee members remember 
him as a leader who allowed for all points of view — a consensus builder. 
He was "a pleasure to work with and a privilege to know." 

Ted was a life-long member of the Massachusetts and Boston Bar 
Associations and president of the Council of the Boston Bar Association 
from 1965 to 1987. 

For many years he took leadership roles in committees and councils 
of his alma mater: chairman of the Harvard Fund Council, proud chief 
marshal at his Harvard 25th reunion in 1959, and a Harvard University 
overseer from 1982 to 1988. He served for many years on the council 



Theodore Chase (191 2-2003 ) 



for the Massachusetts Historical Society and as a trustee of the New 
England Historic Genealogical Society. Ted's active leadership role in 
The Trustees of Reservations, one of the nation's oldest conservation 
organizations, which now protects more than 48,000 acres of scenic, 
historic, and ecological property within Massachusetts, brought him 
great satisfaction and pride. It was to The Trustees of Reservations that 
contributions in Ted's memory were directed following his death. 

Ted's interest in gravestones came about as a result of his travels in 
Great Britain, where he became fascinated with brass rubbing. When he 
and Dottie returned from one of their trips to England, Ted tried his 
hand at rubbing the old gravestones in the burying grounds close to 
home. It was an enjoyable hobby and he began to make a collection of 
rubbings that illustrated the various styles and motifs in the graveyards 
around Boston. He found books by Harriette Forbes and Allan Ludwig 
and, as the AGS bumper sticker warns, his Ford Escort would "brake for 
old graveyards." 

Ted Chase served as trustee and then president of the Association for 
Gravestone Studies from 1983 to 1986 during some of the organization's 
most difficult years of growth. His vast experience and firm leadership 
helped AGS emerge as a viable national association. He worked tirelessly 
on the original by-laws and drafted important model legislation, still 
valid today, aimed at protecting historic gravemarkers and cemeteries. 
These were crucial years in the history of the organization. Taking on 
the editorial duties of Markers in 1987, Ted oversaw the publication 
of Markers V through IX and helped maintain and further enhance 
the journal's reputation for excellence. He was a steadfast advocate 
for Markers, seeing the scholarly journal as the most important lasting 
legacy of the organization's existence. He was also exceedingly proud 
of the many articles and the two books about New England gravestone 
carvers and their work that he co-authored with Laurel K. Gabel. The 
research and writing of Gravestone Chronicles I: Some Eighteenth-Century 
New England Carvers and Their Work (Boston: 1990, reprinted 1997) and 
Gravestone Chronicles II: More Eighteenth-Century New England Carvers 
and an Exploration of Gravestone Heraldica (Boston: 1997) followed Ted's 
retirement, at the age of seventy, in 1982. Shortly before his death he 
described that period of his life to a friend: "Those were wonderful years. 
There was always some mystery to solve with these [carver] fellows. Was 
Maxcy a rogue or just a poor, unlucky business man? What happened to 



Laurel Gabel 



'our man' after he disappeared from Boston? Laurel and I explored all 
over New England on those research trips. My, those were swell times." 
Every research day was an adventure: to old court houses, town libraries, 
hundreds of burying grounds, abandoned logging roads, ancient barns 
with gravestones hiding in the foundation, long hidden deeds and receipts 
or letters that hinted at some linking clue or suggested another trail to 
follow. Without Ted's confident enthusiasm, considerable expertise, and 
patient perseverance, none of the resulting studies would ever have 
been published. For his many outstanding contributions to the field of 
gravestone studies, Theodore Chase was named the 1990 recipient of the 
Forbes Award, the Association for Gravestone Studies' highest honor. 

Dover, Massachusetts, Winter, 2003 

As I approached the old Dover burying ground again on the cold 
but gloriously sunny January 25th, the large American flag flying over 
the cemetery was waving at half-staff. In the newer section of Highland 
Cemetery, on the hill just beyond the ancient graveyard, Ted's simple 
wooden coffin rested on a bier poised above the gaping grave. Almost 
obscured by artificial grass and clods of winter earth, his old slate 
stone was a mute, but timelessly appropriate, observer of the simple 
committal service. In the picturesque old Dover Church just beyond 
the Village Green, hundreds of Ted's friends, young and old, had come 
together to rejoice in his life and, with hymns and prayers and a final sad 
tolling of the old steeple bell, mark the passing of an extraordinary man 
and a very dear friend. With the carving of his death date, the long- 
standing gravestone inscription was finally complete: "In Memory of 
Theodore Chase, 1912-2003." 



Terry Jordan (1938-2003) 







Obituary-. Terry Jordan (1938-2003) 

Richard Francaviglia 

With the passing of Terry Jordan on October 16, 2003, the field of 
cultural geography lost one of its most productive scholars. Those of 
us who seriously study cemeteries also lost a colleague who authored a 
book on cemeteries — Texas Graveyards (1982) — that has become a classic 
in regional literature. Terry Jordan was a sixth-generation Texan — 
and proud of it. Born in Dallas, Jordan staked out his early intellectual 
territory in his home state, where he originally taught at (and later 
chaired) the geography department at the University of North Texas. 
At this time — the early to mid-1970s — Jordan broke new ground with 
pioneering studies on Germans in Texas and the log cabin architecture 
of North Texas. Jordan loved the Lone Star State and spent his entire 
career there, ultimately holding the prestigious Walter Prescott Webb 
Professorship of History and Ideas at the University of Texas at Austin. 

Like many Texans, Jordan was at home in his native state but also 
loved to travel. Jordan not only visited 65 countries but also seriously 
studied the cultural geography of every place he visited. He wrote or 
contributed to more than thirty books on places as diverse as Australia, 
Finland, and Siberia. With an eye tuned to everything cultural — 
landscape, dialects, foodways, folklore — Jordan was the consummate 
field geographer. Where others might be content to read only the written 
historical resources about places, Jordan contended that as much — 
actually more — could be learned by experiencing those places first 
hand. That is what made his book Texas Graveyards stand out: it was 
based on extensive first-hand field observation. More than twenty years 
has passed since Jordan published that book, which set the standard 
for what a regional treatment of cemeteries should cover. That book's 
simplicity and eloquence have not been duplicated elsewhere for other 
regions. However, it should ultimately inspire others to use the cultural 
geographer's techniques in describing and interpreting the cemeteries of 
other states and regions. Jordan taught his readers and students to see 
both the details and the big picture, a remarkable accomplishment in an 
age of specialization. 



10 



Terry Jordan (1938-2003) 




Jordan possessed another Texas trait that endeared him to many but 
put off some: He was positively fearless in expressing his opinions. He 
loved to shatter long-held but unsupported opinions, and his sometimes 
irreverent interpretations of subjects caused some misunderstandings. 
For example, in North American Ranching Frontiers (1993), Jordan 
challenged the commonly held belief that western American ranching 
was primarily inspired by Texan and Spanish/ Mexican sources, 
concluding that its origins revealed strong British roots through the 
eastern United States. That prompted some scholars to brand Jordan as 
anti-Hispanic, but those who knew Jordan knew the claim to be absurd. 

Jordan is best known for his productive scholarship, but he was also 
an avid stonemason. This fact is not really surprising given his deep 
appreciation of the gravemarkers that appear in his Texas Graveyards. 
With his talented hands shaping rock walls in Texas and his inquiring 



Richard Francaviglia 1 1 



mind shaping two generations of geographers, Jordan was above all an 
inspiration. After his marriage to Russian geographer Bella Bychkova in 
1997, Jordan hyphenated his name, so do not be surprised to see him also 
identified as Terry Jordan-Bychkov. That is the name that appears on the 
last book that he published — The Upland South: Tlte Making of an American 
Folk Tradition and Landscape (2003). The Upland South stretches from the 
Appalachian Highlands down through the Cross Timbers and Hill 
Country of Texas, a region that Jordan knew intimately. Symbolically 
enough, the last chapter in this beautifully written and wonderfully 
illustrated book is entitled "Upland Southern Graveyards." It seems a 
fitting tribute to the man who studied the world but never lost his love 
for his native land. 

Friends in Austin told me about Jordan's incredibly tough fight 
against pancreatic cancer, a fight that was both heartbreaking and 
inspirational. He would come to class while receiving chemotherapy 
and still deliver wonderful lectures — a fighter to the very end. That, too, 
should come as no surprise, for Terry Jordan-Bychkov fought for the 
things he knew were important. Education was his calling, and he lived 
it to the end. 



12 



Carving a Path to Freedom 



>v 



X 



^wsJljP^PPr* 




Frontispiece: William Baile (1836), Pipe Creek ("Brick") 

Methodist Church between Westminster and New Windsor, MD. 

Carved by Sebastian "Boss" Hammond. 



13 



Carving a Path to Freedom: 
The Life and Work of African American 
Stonecarver Sebastian "Boss" Hammond 

Mary Ann Ashcraft 

In 2001, owners of land lying along the border between Carroll, and 
Frederick Counties in central Maryland discovered the gravestones of 
two children lying face up in dense undergrowth. The beautifully carved 
stones bore dates from the mid-1830s. Around them were strewn slabs of 
local rock with straight edges and the distinct marks of saw blades. The 
landowners also remembered seeing numerous small stone foundations 
scattered over the area when they moved there many years ago. Without 
realizing it, they had stumbled upon the site where a former slave named 
Sebastian "Boss" Hammond carved more than one hundred elegantly 
lettered gravestones for nearly three decades in the nineteenth century. 1 
His reputation as a stonecutter was widespread during his lifetime, 
but because he did not sign his work, the memory of Hammond faded 
rapidly after his death. His rediscovery makes him one of the earliest 
documented black craftsmen in central Maryland. 

Sebastian Boss/ Boston/ Bostion Hammond was born a slave some- 
time between 1795 and 1804, probably on a farm belonging to one of the 
Hammonds of Liberty District, Frederick County, Maryland. This area 
was home to many large landowners who moved westward from the 
tidewater region of Maryland during the second half of the eighteenth 
century, bringing along slaves to work their large holdings. Some of 
these families were "land-rich, cash-poor": they owned thousands of 
acres and some slaves but little else. Their homes were usually plain 
and functional compared to the elegant estates of the Hammonds and 
Carrolls who lived around Baltimore and Annapolis. In 1824, Boss 
Hammond's owner, the young widow Area Hammond, promised him 
freedom on January 8, 1844, and filed the manumission in the Frederick 
County Courthouse. 2 According to her estimate, Boss was about twenty 
years old. No doubt she felt she would ensure his loyalty and assistance 
with this promise. Area soon remarried, but in 1830 she was widowed 
again and her cousin Colonel Thomas Hammond, the brother of her 
first husband, purchased Boss at the estate sale of her second husband, 



14 



Carving a Path to Freedom 



John Walker. 3 Colonel Hammond had extensive land holdings in eastern 
Frederick County which he farmed using slave labor. 

Boss Hammond was approximately thirty years old when Colonel 
Hammond acquired him and apparently already possessed some 
stonecarving skills. Colonel Hammond, a politically prominent member 
of the upper class in Frederick County, may have helped advertise Boss's 
carving talents to people with whom he came in contact. As Thomas 
Hammond's slave from 1830 until 1839, Boss Hammond turned out 
dozens of gravestones. The mid-1830s were his most productive years 
based upon death dates on the gravestones (Fig. 1). Administration 
accounts from this period reveal he charged between $10 and $14 for 
a headstone and footstone, the same price demanded by most other 
stonecutters working in central Maryland at the time (see Appendix I). 
It appears the payments were made directly to Boss, not to his owner. 
There is no way to determine how much of the money he was allowed to 
keep, but judging from the number of stones he produced, he could have 
amassed a considerable sum over the nine-year period. 



Year Number 

[1811] 1 

[1814] 1 

[1815] 1 

[1818] 1 

[1821] 1 

[1823] 1 

[1825] 1 

[1828] 1 

[1829] 3 

1830 3 

1831 2 

1832 6 



Year Number 

1833 6 

1834 10 

1835 13 

1836 10 

1837 8 

1838 5 

1839 4 

1840 4 

1841 5 

1842 3 

1844 2 

1845 3 



Year Number 

1846 3 

1847 4 

1848 2 

1849 3 

1850 

1851 1 

1852 

1853 

1854 

1855 1 

1856 

1857 1 



Hammond gravestones per year; [ ] = presumably backdated 



Fig. 1. Death dates on Hammond gravestones. 



Mary Ann Ashcraft 1 5 



On July 29, 1839, Colonel Thomas Hammond granted Boss his 
freedom nearly five years ahead of the date set by Area Hammond. 4 In 
the new manumission, his age was given as thirty-eight. That document 
states he was freed for "divers good causes and considerations," a 
standard phrase used in most manumissions; no mention is made of 
specific conditions such as payment of a sum of money. Boss's obituary, 
written in 1893, says he bought his freedom for $700. 5 If this figure is 
correct, it was an unusually high price to ask for the release of a man 
approaching the age of 40. Colonel Hammond may have recognized 
he was liberating a valuable slave and sought to be compensated 
accordingly, but it is also possible that oral history was corrupted 
during the fifty-four years between Boss's manumission and his death. 
Regardless of the sum, Boss undoubtedly used money he earned carving 
gravestones toward purchasing his freedom. 

Within a year, Boss Hammond had purchased nine acres along the 
Carroll-Frederick border. He was to live there the remainder of his life 
(Fig. 2). 6 Between 1841 and 1850 he acquired sixty additional acres, and 
by 1857 he had bought his wife, Marcella, and eleven children out of 
slavery. 7 The 1850 census listed his occupation as "stonecutter," but in 
later years his principal sources of income became farming and lime 
burning. 8 His land, livestock, and income from the crops he raised 
would have made him one of the most prosperous African Americans 
living in the area. Family tradition says he was a leader in his small, 
primarily black community of Newport and often helped less fortunate 
families through difficult times. 

Because white marble was the most popular material for gravestones 
in Carroll and Frederick Counties during the nineteenth century, 
Hammond's dark greenish-gray metabasalt markers are easy to spot 
from a distance in old cemeteries. 9 According to local residents, he 
quarried most of his stone less than half a mile from his home. Farmers 
called it "greenstone" and often used it for foundations, walls, and entire 
buildings. Hammond may have cut the stone into slabs at a sawmill 
located near his rock source and then, using his horses, hauled the 
slabs to his worksite for further preparation. Relatives say he was also a 
blacksmith, an important skill for someone who constantly needed sharp 
stonecutting tools at his disposal. Greenstone is ideal for markers as it is 
relatively soft and easy to carve; doesn't split like slate; is usually free of 



16 



Carving a Path to Freedom 




Fig. 2. Portion of 1873 map of eastern Liberty District, 

Frederick County, Maryland, showing location of 

B. Hammond's property (center) along the border 

with Carroll County. 



Mary Ann Ashcraft ] 7 



lichen growth; and weathers imperceptibly, even in the climate of central 
Maryland. Hammond must have chosen his raw material carefully 
because his markers are generally free of imperfections although color 
variations and small inclusions are common. Several were found with 
bits of white filler he apparently used for minor surface repairs. 

The headstone of Malakiah Bonham bears the earliest death date 
(1811) of any Hammond stone, although it could not have been made 
until many years later (cover; Fig. 7). Hammond markers with death 
dates prior to 1830 were probably made during the 1830s or early 1840s 
when he was at the height of his carving career and his reputation was 
spreading. It is John Walker's gravestone with a death date of 1830 that 
helps establish the beginning of Boss Hammond's stonecarving career 
(Fig. 3). Walker and his wife, Area Hammond, owned Boss in 1830, 
making it somewhat more likely that the marker was carved near the 
time of Walker's death. It is shaped like other Hammond headstones and 
bears his trademark motifs, but it differs in many important respects. 
Although "SACRED" dominates the stone, it is less bold than usual 
and the word "Age" is also somewhat tentative in its execution. The 
incised border is well done, but most of the words are poorly spaced, 
the punctuation is nonstandard, and many letters and numerals are ill- 
formed (Fig. 4). Hammond's interlace motif in the lobe is rather lopsided 
and is surrounded by tiny dots — a treatment not seen elsewhere (Fig. 5). 
The workmanship on Walker's headstone is clearly that of a beginner. 
None of his other gravestones shows so many signs of inexperience; in 
fact, it seems remarkable that all the others, regardless of the death dates 
on them, are so expertly carved in his mature style. 

Although Hammond produced scores of markers during his carving 
career, his name rarely appears in administration accounts. Carroll 
County's administration accounts were searched from 1837 (the year 
the county was formed) until 1850, yet only a few listed Hammond as 
receiving payment for gravestones (see Appendix 1). Hammond's name 
is equally scarce in Frederick County's records. No known Hammond 
marker bears a death date after 1857, with the exception of a few 
"recycled" ones which he or a family member may have sold years later. 
If he continued carving after 1857, he must have drastically changed his 
style and begun using marble, but it seems more probable he turned his 
energies to farming, lime burning, and blacksmithing for the remainder 
of his long life. 



18 



Carving a Path to Freedom 




rm 






; ^ii^toh 







*■- 



Fig. 3. John Walker (1830), Fairmount Cemetery, 
Libertytown, Frederick County. 



Mary Ann Ashcraft 



I" 



o f 

: p a i < c. <1 Jt II i ^ L f 

< li • ' > r c a. i: 




-~> 



^ 



-> 



CY"' c 



Fig. 4. Crudely executed lettering on John Walker gravestone (1830), 

Fairmount Cemetery, Libertytown, Frederick County, 

appears to reveal Hammond's inexperience. 



Hammond created distinctive greenstone markers in two basic 
shapes that vary in proportion and size. From the 1830s until the mid- 
18405, he produced the shape seen in the John Lindsay gravestone (1833) 
with its prominent central lobe and concave shoulders (Fig. 6). A few 
stones in this style have very exaggerated concave shoulders which 
extend far down the sides (Fig. 7). No other carver in the vicinity used 
this shape, although many others produced the simple rectangle with 
small concave shoulders Hammond began cutting in the mid-1840s 
(Fig. 8). All of his later gravestones are in this shape. 

Hammond laid out his markers with an artist's sense of balance 
between lettering and ornamentation. Every gravestone has a simple but 
elegant incised double border formed by chiseling a wide, half-round 
gutter about one inch from the edge of the stone and an inner narrow 
groove which also follows the stone's contour. This double border 
creates a beautiful frame for his text and decorative elements. 



20 



Carving a Path to Freedom 





Fig. 5. Detail of lobe of John Walker gravestone (1830), 

Fairmount Cemetery, Libertytown, Frederick County, with interlace 

surrounded by small dots (not seen on other stones). 



Mary Ann Ashcraft 



21 












Fig. 6. John Lindsay (1833), Linganore U. M. Cemetery, Unionville, 

Frederick County, showing the standard shape of gravestones 

Hammond carved in the 1830s and early 1840s. 



22 



Carving a Path to Freedom 







'\j 



ffT 1 <22; 



-f> 




Fig. 7. Malakiah Bonham (1811) at Linganore U. M. Cemetery, 

Unionville, Frederick County, with exaggerated 

concave shoulders. Presumably backdated. 



Mary Ann Ashcraft 



23 





> 



THE MiEIWOIlX 

Vt no tlcpuvtetl slii.v ii to 

~P .» v cav ell :Tt V '-€vi*'v x Vtl .v . 
TXf.i.»f l "i^vuvt lie, 

T i 1 1 c li v x s t a p t* fc .1 •»» s . 




Fig. 8. Amy Nusbaum (1849), Linganore U. M. Cemetery, 

Unionville, Frederick County, squared top 

typical of Hammond's later work. 



24 Carving a Path to Freedom 



What really distinguishes Boss Hammond's gravestones is their 
dramatic lettering and appealing decorative motifs borrowed from 
calligraphy. The word "SACRED" is boldly and deeply carved in capital 
letters spanning the entire width of the stone. It dominates all other 
features, including the name of the deceased, and creates a striking three- 
dimensional effect. Each letter has prominent serifs; those on the "S" are 
curled and ornate, while those on the other letters are strictly angular, 
created by deep, straight cuts of the chisel (Fig. 9). The execution of this 
word leaves little doubt that Hammond thoroughly enjoyed his craft. In 
a raking light, "SACRED" takes on an almost sculptured appearance. 
None of his work has been found with the familiar weeping willows, 
urns, mourning figures, or other representational designs occasionally 
used by central Maryland carvers during the 1830s and 1840s. 

On lobe-style gravestones, Hammond usually carved a lovely 
calligraphic ornament called an "interlace" within the lobe (Figs. 6,7,9). 
The design, one of his trademarks, doesn't appear on any other stones 
in north-central Maryland, but a similar interlace has been found on 
gravemarkers in an adjacent Pennsylvania county. 10 The shallow, 
delicate carving of the interlace enhances the lobe and contrasts with 
the deeply chiseled "SACRED" beneath. Hammond occasionally used 
another interlace resembling the infinity symbol, but this design was less 
skillfully executed (Fig. 9). He frequently carved pairs of small motifs 
resembling curved, interlaced arrows to fill the large empty space on 
either side of the word "OF." The strong v-cut of his chisel is particularly 
evident in these unusual designs. Many of the same decorative elements 
used on his lobe-style gravestones also appear on the rectangular ones. 
His ornamentation was chiefly curvilinear, and the contrast between it 
and his crisp, rather angular lettering gives great vibrancy to his work. 

The text of Hammond's gravestones follows the standard bio- 
graphical formula, beginning with "Sacred to the memory of," then the 
name of the deceased, and finally the date of death and age in years, 
months and days. Hammond based his block lettering on commonly 
used eighteenth- and nineteenth-century typefaces; however, it is 
far more dynamic and exciting than that of contemporary carvers in 
the area. He created a very personal style which carried variations in 
thickness of each letter to the extreme. The exaggeration is most obvious 
in the word "SACRED," but it appears whenever he used capital letters 



Mary Ann Ashcraft 



25 







"2hPfr 








Fig. 9. Ludwick Greenwood (1844), Greenwood Cemetery, 

New Windsor, Carroll County, illustrating the three-dimensional 

effect Hammond created with his deeply carved letters. 



26 Carving a Path to Freedom 



such as in the name of the deceased or the month of death. Unlike most 
carvers of the period, his capital letters are much bolder and thicker than 
his lower case letters. His serifs are also very pronounced. Letters are 
well spaced and nicely proportioned. In most instances, he planned each 
line carefully so words did not require hyphenation and letters were of 
uniform size. He always placed the name of the deceased on a line of its 
own, never adding other words to detract from it. His use of punctuation 
to abbreviate dates or age was sophisticated and included extra strokes 
not usually added by other carvers (Fig. 10). His numerals are beautifully 
executed with the same variation in thickness he created for letters. 

The inscriptions on some of Boss Hammond's most attractive 
markers end with the word "Age" greatly enlarged near the bottom of 
the stone and surrounded with lovely calligraphic ornaments (Fig. 10). 
"Age" is a comparatively light and delicate design which complements 
and offsets the boldness of the word "SACRED" (Fig. 6). It ensures that a 
viewer's eyes will sweep across the entire surface of the stone from top to 
bottom. These dominant elements frame the several lines of biographical 
text and balance the entire composition. While Hammond's beautifully 
formed letters and skillfully executed calligraphic devices prove he was 
a master carver, the composition of the stones proves he was an artist 
as well. 

Fewer than a dozen of Hammond's gravemarkers end with verse 
epitaphs. These stones tend to be less aesthetically pleasing than verseless 
ones because the attractive balance of text and decorative elements 
is destroyed when four, eight, or even twelve extra lines are added 
at the bottom. Nevertheless, the verses are technically well executed 
with accurate spelling and punctuation and usually with appropriate 
capitalization. He used several different conventional verses, the most 
common being: 

Kind angels watch the sleeping dust, 

Till Jesus comes to raise the Just. 

Then may she (he) wake with sweet surprise 

And in her (his) Saviour's image rise. 

Hammond's footstones match the shape of the headstones and 
always include the characteristic incised border plus bold initials 



Mary Ann Ashcraft 



27 



IiliUeS^^ai of Iiis 





*•••■" 




Fig. 10. Detail showing calligraphic ornamentation, Nathan Magruder 
(1836), Linganore U. M. Cemetery, Unionville, Frederick County. 



(Fig. 11). A few add the death date. The price for a headstone and 
footstone eventually reached $21.00 in the 1840s (see Appendix I). There 
was probably no cost involved in obtaining the raw material, so the 
charges covered his labor to quarry the stone, then shape, polish, and 
letter the markers. Nicholas Benson, a master stonecarver and the owner 
of the John Stevens Shop in Newport, Rhode Island, estimated it would 
take approximately a week to letter a stone similar to the one made for 
John Lindsay (Fig. 6). 11 

Boss Hammond also lettered a few marble markers. A handful 
of stones have been found with his bold "SACRED" and unique 
method of punctuating ages and dates (Fig. 12). Their shape is typical 
of early nineteenth-century gravestones erected in central Maryland, 
but very different from Hammond's markers. One Frederick County 
administration record shows he was paid $4.05 for the lettering, less than 
half the sum he received when he made a stone from start to finish. 12 

According to his obituary, Hammond "did not know one letter from 
another/' and the census records also indicate he could neither read nor 



28 



Carving a Path to Freedom 




■"tZ&^K 






■■•■■_; /•> ' V 



.u(%.Jh *j n ■ 



Fig. 11. J. H. Warfield footstone (unknown date), 
Bethel U. M. Cemetery, Marston, Carroll County. 



Mary Ann Ashcraft 



29 



write. 13 If this is true, the caliber of his work is truly astonishing. Names 
and dates are spelled correctly on almost every stone and complex verses 
are perfectly reproduced. Perhaps he relied upon occasional help from 
a literate neighbor when he was in doubt, but his accuracy also was the 
result of his close attention to detail as he worked. It is also possible the 
census records and obituary were incorrect. By the late 1840s, significant 
spacing problems, misspellings, and other errors appear on two or three 
of his markers. About the same time, he began utilizing another kind of 
stone for some of his markers — a dark gray to black slate-like material. 




8 S» 




1! 







Fig. 12. William M. Worman (1836), Linganore U. M. Cemetery, 

Unionville, Frederick County. Hammond appears to 

have lettered this lichen-encrusted marble stone. 



30 Carving a Path to Freedom 



The lettering on markers made from this stone is not as crisp as that on 
the greenstone markers, but it may be less a function of carving skill than 
of differences in the stone's resistance to weathering over the past 150 
years or the texture of the stone itself. 

Although Hammond's style changed very little over the course of 
his career and he did not follow the trends of other local carvers, his 
work was in demand judging by the number of families who purchased 
multiple gravestones from him. Five members of the Kiler family are 
buried beneath his markers at St. Luke's (Winter's) Lutheran Cemetery 
near New Windsor in Carroll County. Other local families such as the 
Greenwoods, Drachs, Bailes, Warfields and Bennetts also purchased 
multiple markers (see Appendix II). Of six gravestones found in the 
Michael Haines Family Cemetery, four were carved by Hammond. 
The only known marker he made specifically for an African American 
was that for Rosanna Cassell. Her estate was administered by a local 
white farmer named Levi Devilbiss, who lived near Hammond and 
undoubtedly knew of his craftsmanship. 14 

There is no direct evidence that explains how Hammond learned his 
trade. When he was a young slave, his owner could have apprenticed 
him to a stonecutter, but it is more probable he was engaged in farming 
until he was in his mid- to late twenties. He might have obtained some 
experience working with stone by being hired out to a stonemason; it 
was a common practice to hire out slaves temporarily to local craftsmen 
such as carpenters, blacksmiths, shoemakers, and stonemasons. 

A carver who put the initials "J.N." on his markers and lived near the 
Carroll/ Frederick County border during the 1820s may be the person 
who taught Boss Hammond to make gravestones. Three of J.N.'s stones 
appear in the same cemeteries with Hammond's. J.N.'s work, which 
predates the period when Boss Hammond probably began carving by 
about five years, shares many features with Hammond's. Both craftsmen 
carved their markers from local greenstone, and although they shaped 
the tops of their markers very differently, the multiple border and 
calligraphic ornaments link J.N.'s 1820s stone for Frederick Buser 
with Hammond's stones (Fig. 13). As on Hammond markers, block 
Roman capitals are followed by text in upper and lower case. On the 
Buser gravemarker, J.N. not only used a matching pair of calligraphic 
ornaments almost identical to those Hammond carved, but he also used 



Mary Ann Ashcraft 



31 





Fig. 13. Fred'k Buser gravestone (1822?), signed "J.N./' 

St. Luke's (Winter's) Lutheran Cemetery, New Windsor, 

Carroll County. Some elements of J.N.'s stones 

link them to Hammond's work. 



32 



Carving a Path to Freedom 



























QA 


u 














o» 


Ham 
work 
site 




















1 






















■ 














H 








■ 




= > 
















t 3 
CO o 










i-h 


















§ 


















H 


















tt* 


















u 


















£ 


o 

Q 



H 


-J 
5 


Q 
- 




o 

H 






o 

H 
Z» 



z 


NION 
RIDGE 

NEW WIN 
• 


a s 

1 2 

• >> 

/ -J 


z 


En 
-*• 


z 






PS 


SCO / 

• ** " 
/ 


1- 

O 




* 






§ ' 


-J 


& z 




n 


1 






>• * 


?• 




£ 




k 


\ *" V 


^ — 


1 


Ed ' 

1 
/ 


5 
o 

1-9 




• o 




• 2 

Ed 
Z 




i*i 




o 




OQ 














os» 




J 














o 


















CO 






* 






.* 






o 






u 






o 
"ZZ 

CD 
T3 



C 
3 
O 

o 




o 






2 






LL 












Li 





e 




3 




O 




U 




44 




u 








S 




01 




TS 




Ol 






C 


T3 


3 


C 


o 


AS 


<4H 


_H 


0) 




;» 


o 


d 


>H 




u 


cr 


ci 


01 


U 


c 







s 


•i-l 


• 1-H 


Cfi 




01 

> 

ra 


d 


& 


oi 




X 


T3 


■*=> 


C 


Ml 


O 


C 


£ 


£ 


£ 


n 


rfl 


X 


X 


V) 






o 




i 


rs 


•*-> 


>> 


s 


h 


X 


m 




s 


13 


"rfl 


01 


fcj 


0» 


c 


X 


01 


£ 


U 


Mh 




o 




a 




ns 








Mary Ann Ashcraft 33 



them in the same way to fill out a short line of text. No other carvers in 
the region used these calligraphic devices. J.N.'s work is delicate and 
sophisticated, with shallowly-incised lettering in mixed typefaces as well 
as calligraphic script. His calligraphic ornaments are equally shallow. In 
contrast, Hammond's stones appear more flamboyant with their boldly 
executed block lettering and calligraphic devices that are deeply incised 
and eye-catching. Although the carvers' styles are very different, there 
are enough similarities to suggest that a working relationship existed 
between them at one time. 

Although Boss Hammond ceased carving gravestones around 1860, 
he continued to farm and burn lime in the Newport area for many more 
years. In 1880 he was forced to sell most of his land to settle an old debt. 
His wife and oldest son preceded him in death. Hammond passed away 
March 31, 1893, and was buried in the cemetery at Fairview, a historic 
African American church on the border between Carroll and Frederick 
Counties. His gravestone lists his age as ninety-eight. In the American 
Sentinel [Carroll County] of April 8, 1893, his obituary noted that "the 
funeral of 'Boss' Hammond was very largely attended by both white 
and colored." 15 The same day another Carroll County newspaper, 
the Democratic Advocate, called Hammond "a worthy colored man, of 
Frederick county," and commented that "many graveyards in Frederick 
and Carroll counties bear evidence of his skill as a workman, some of his 
lettering having been done over seventy-five years ago. He at one time 
was well off, but lost his property and died poor." 16 Hammond left no 
will or record of the disposition of his household furnishings or carving 
tools. If his sons ever helped him with stonecutting as young men, 
there is no evidence they continued after their father gave up his craft. 
Hammond's small gravestone at Fairview is a recycled one he originally 
carved for someone else. He hardly needed a memorial, however, 
for over one hundred gravestones scattered principally in cemeteries 
along the Carroll and Frederick County border (Fig. 14) bear eloquent 
testimony to the man and his talent. 



34 Carving a Path to Freedom 



NOTES 

The author is indebted to George and Ann Parry Horvath for their assistance in 
researching many aspects of this subject and for their constant and enthusiastic 
support. Staff at the Carroll and Frederick County Courthouses were always 
helpful and cooperative. For more than seven years, friends in the Carroll 
County Genealogical Society, the Historical Society of Carroll County, and the 
Historical Society of Frederick County listened kindly to new developments 
in Boss Hammond's story and offered leads. A somewhat different version of 
this essay appeared under the title "Sacred to the Memory: The Stonecarving of 
Sebastian Hammond" in Catoctin History (Spring 2003), pp. 20-27. 

[Editor's note: A few other African American stonecarvers or gravestone makers 
have been identified. Vincent Luti, "Case for a Black Stone Carver," in his Mallet 
and Chisel: Gravestone Carvers of Newport, Rhode Island in the 18th Century (Boston: 
NEHGS, 2002), pp. 297-300, sifts the evidence of the claims about African 
Americans working in the famous Steven's Shop of Newport. There are several 
books as well as articles on William Edmondson, who created gravemarkers and 
sculptural pieces in Tennessee until just before his death in 1951; the most recent 
is Robert Farris Thompson, et al., The Art of William Edmondson (Nashville, TN: 
Cheekwood Museum of Art; and Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1999). 
See also Patricia Brady, "Florville Foy, F.M.C.: Master Marble Cutter and Tomb 
Builder," Southern Quarterly 31:2 (Winter 1993): 8-20; and Barbara Rotundo, "A 
Modern Gravestone Maker: Some Lessons for Gravestone Historians," Markers 
XIV (1997): 86-109, which discusses the work of Merry E. Veal of Mississippi. 
Veal produced gravestones of cast cement beginning in the 1960s. Rotundo 
also includes references to a few other African American stonecarvers and folk 
sculptors. M. Ruth Little's Sticks and Stones: Three Centuries of North Carolina 
Gravemarkers (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998), pp. 239- 
258, describes African American traditions, particularly the cast cement work of 
Renial Culbreth, Issiah McEachin, and several anonymous folk craftsmen. Ted 
Delaney, Archivist & Curator of the Old City Cemetery, Lynchburg, Virginia, 
reports that William Henry Jefferson (also known by the last name "Taylor" or 
"Tayloe" before c. 1855) "carved about 50 or 60 stones in the Old City Cemetery" 
for fellow African Americans (email to the editor, February 25, 2004).] 

1 Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Malatt donated the gravestones to the Historical 
Society of Carroll County and the Maryland Historical Society. 

2 Frederick County (MD) Land Records, Liber JS 19, Folio 288. Two male 
slaves in the age category between 14 and 25 were listed as the property of 
Upton Hammond, Area Hammond's first husband, in the 1820 Census. 
One of these slaves may have been Boss. See 1820 Census, Liberty District, 
Frederick County, MD, 211. 

3 Frederick County (MD) Land Records, Liber HS 9, Folio 322-323. The 
manumission reads in part, "and by these presents do hereby release from 
slavery liberate manumit and set free my Dark Mullatto (sic) man named 
Boss, being of the age of thirty eight years which Slave I purchased at the sale 



Mary Ann Ashcraft 35 



of the personal property of John Walker dec'd in 1830, to serve until the 8 th day 
of January 1844 Said Slave being heretofore manumitted to serve until said 
8 th January 1844 by Mrs. Area Hammond who afterwards intermarried with 
the said John Walker, reference being had to the said deed of manumission 
recorded in the office of the Clerk of Frederick County Court." 

4 Ibid. 

5 Democratic Advocate (Westminster, Carroll County, MD), 28:23 (April 8, 1893). 

6 Frederick County (MD) Land Records, Liber HS 11, Folio 528. 

7 Mary Fitzhugh Hitselberger and John Philip Dern, Bridge in Time: The 
Complete 1850 Census of Frederick County, Maryland (Redwood City, CA: 
Monocacy Book Co., 1978), 436; Frederick County Land Records, Liber ES 7, 
Folio 302. 

8 Hitselberger and Dern, 554-555; 1860 Census, Liberty District, Frederick Co., 
MD, 75; 1880 Census, Linganore District, Frederick Co., MD, 14. 

9 The metamorphic rock formation known as Sam's Creek Metabasalt appears 
frequently as outcroppings of dark gray-green schistose to massive rock along 
the border between Carroll and Frederick Counties. Hammond would have 
preferred to work with the massive variety of metabasalt because it was less 
likely to split when shaped into gravestones than the schistose variety. The 
formation received its name from Sam's Creek, which flows near Hammond's 
home and forms part of the Carroll-Frederick border for several miles. Not all 
of Hammond's markers are cut from metabasalt; he also used other local, dark 
stone more closely resembling slate. 

10 Gary Collison reported that a stonecarver who used very similar calligraphic 
devices worked in the German-speaking area of northern Adams County, 
Pennsylvania, during approximately the same period as Boss Hammond. 
Adams County forms part of the northern border of Carroll County; the areas 
are separated by roughly fifty miles. See Jacqueline Kimball, "Gravestones, 
Carvers and Ethnic Pride (Interview with and photography by Gary Collison)," 
Stone in America (July 1999): 18-23. 

11 Personal communication, Nicholas Benson. 

12 Frederick County Administration Accounts, Liber GME 12, Folio 130-135. 

13 Democratic Advocate. 

14 Frederick County Administration Accounts, Liber GME 14, 217-218. 

15 American Sentinel (Westminster, Carroll County, MD), 61:14 (April 8, 1893). 

16 Democratic Advocate. 



36 Carving a Path to Freedom 

Appendix I 
Probate Payments to Sebastian "Boss" Hammond 

John Lindsay -Frederick Co. GME 10, 174-178. Account dated May 13, 1834. 

"For d° paid Boss Hammond for a pair of tombstones . . . $14.00." Stone at Linganore 
U. M. Cemetery, Unionville, Frederick County. 

Conrad Duderer -Frederick Co. GME 10, 539-541. Account dated February 2, 1835. 

"For d° paid Boss Hammond for pr tombstones . . . $12.00." Stone last seen in 1930 on 
Dudderar Farm near Oak Orchard, Frederick County. 

Michael Baile -Frederick Co. GME 11, 280-281. Account dated September 28, 1835. 

"For d° paid Boss Hammond for pair of tombstones . . . $12.00." Stone at Baile Family 
Cemetery near Marston, Carroll County. 

Henry Bond - Frederick Co. GME 11, 441-443. Account dated February 8, 1836. 
"For d° paid Boss Hammond for a pair of Tomb stones . . . $10.00." Stone at Pipe 
Creek Church of the Brethren Cemetery near Uniontown, Carroll County. 

William Worman -Frederick Co. GME 12, 130-135. Account dated October 25, 1836. 
"For D° Paid Boss Hammond [for lettering] . . . $4.05." Stone at Linganore U. M. 
Cemetery, Unionville, Frederick County. 

Rosannah Shuey -Carroll Co. JB 1, 279-280. Account dated May 11, 1840. 

"D° paid Boss Hammond for pair of tombstones . . . $11.00." Stone at St. Luke's 
(Winter's) Lutheran Cemetery near New Windsor, Carroll County. 

Simon Kiler -Carroll Co. JB 1, 334-335. Account dated Nov. 16, 1840. 

"D° Paid Boss Hammond for a pair of tomb stones . . . $11.50." Stone at St. Luke's 
(Winter's) Lutheran Cemetery near New Windsor, Carroll County. 

Rosanna Cassell (col'd) -Frederick Co. GME 14, 217-218. 

Account dated February 22, 1841. "For d° p d Boss Hammond for a pair of tombstones 
. . . $13.00." Location of stone unknown. 

Charles Franklin -Carroll Co. JB 2, 9-10. Accounted dated Jan. 23, 1843. 

"Paid Boss Hammon for tombstones . . . $10.00." Stone in Franklin Family Cemetery 
near Taylorsville, Carroll County. 

Casper Devilbiss -Frederick Co. GME 15:258. Account dated May 22, 1843. 

"For this sum paid Bostion Hammond for tombstones . . . $11.00." Stone in Devilbiss 
Family Cemetery near Oak Orchard, Frederick County. 

Ludwick Greenwood -Carroll Co. JB 2, 345-346. Account dated Dec. 22, 1845. 
"For d" Paid Boston Hammond for pair of Tomb stones . . . $21.00." Stone at 
Greenwood Church Cemetery near New Windsor, Carroll County. 

Susannah Devilbiss -Carroll Co. JB 2, 400-401. Account dated April 20, 1846. 

"Paid Bostion Hamon for gravestones . . . $15.00." Stone in Devilbiss Family Cemetery 
near Oak Orchard, Frederick County. 

Mary Haines -Carroll Co. JB 2, 429-430. Account dated Aug. 10, 1846. 

"P d Boss Hammond for grave stones . . . $21.00." Location of stone unknown. 



Mary Ann Ashcraft 



37 



Appendix II 

Location of Gravestones 
Cut and/or Lettered by Sebastian "Boss" Hammond 

Date given is the year of death. Stones with dates prior to 1830 are presumably 
backdated. Probated stones are underlined. Locations are current as of 2003, but are 
not necessarily the original ones. All are in Carroll County unless designed "FC" 
(Frederick County), or "BC" (Baltimore County). 



Unknown Location (likely CC or FC) 

Cassell, Rosanna (col'd) ca 1839 

Haines, Mary ca. 1846 

Baile Family Cemetery near Marston 

Baile, Michael 1834 

Bethel United Methodist Cemetery 
near Marston 

W., J. H unknown date 

Warfield, Caroline unknown date 

Howard, Juliet 1829 

Warfield, Francis H 1830 

Dorsey, Richard G 1832 

Warfield, Evelina H 1833 

Warfield, Hannah Y 1835 

Warfield, Dennis 1835 

Warfield, Alexander 1835 

Gosnell, Christena 1838 

Bennett, Elizabeth 1846 

Wright, John D. E 1847 

Wright, Hannah C 1847 

Wright, Eliza J 1847 

Crawmer, Rachel 1848 

Miller, Deborah H 1848 

Sebier, Sarah T 1871 (recycled) 

Buckingham Family Cemetery 
near Taylorsville 

Buckingham, Esther 1829 



Cassell Family Cemetery 
near Westminster 

Cassell, Jonathan 1828 

Cassell, Mary 1834 

Roop, Susannah 1845 

Devilbiss Family Cemetery 
near Oak Orchard, FC 

Devilbiss, Caspar 1835 

Devilbiss, Susannah 1840 

Dudderar Family Cemetery 
near Unionville, FC 

Duderer, Conrad 1831 

(stone last seen ca. 1930) 

Ebenezer United Methodist 
Cemetery near Winfield 

Shipley, Areaminta 1815 

Shipley, John 1840 

Fairmount Cemetery, Libertytown, FC 

Walker, John 1830 

Fairview United Methodist 
Cemetery near Taylorsville 

Hammond, Marcella 1890 (recycled) 

Hammond, Cora E 1891 (recycled) 

Hammond, Sebastian 1893 (recycled) 

Hammond, Lina U 1896 (recycled) 

Franklin Family Cemetery 
near Taylorsville 

, Frederick unknown date 



38 



Carving a Path to Freedom 



, Susanna unknown date 

, Rachel 1832 

Barnes, George W 1832 

Buckingham, Upton B 1833 

Franklin, Charles 1840 

Greenwood Church Cemetery near 
New Windsor, CC 

James, Mary 1833 

Greenwood, Washington 1838 

Greenwood, Lewis 1842 

Greenwood, Ludwick 1844 

James, Nancy 1846 

Greenwood, Jacob 1849 

Haines Family Cemetery near Marston 

Baile, Nancy 1818 

Haines, David 1821 

Baile, Eliza 1835 

Hooper, John 1837 

Historical Society of Carroll County, 
210 E. Main Street, Westminster 

Picket, John T. W 1834 

Historical Society of Frederick County, 
24 E. Church Street, Frederick 

Gosnell, Margaret 1834 

Johnsville United Methodist Cemetery, 
Johnsville, FC 

Repp, Solomon 1835 

Lineanore United Methodist Cemetery, 
Unionville, FC 

Bonham, Malakiah 1811 

Bonham, Mary W 1832 

Barnes, Sarah Ann 1832 

Greentree, Hannah C 1832 

Coomes, Finetta 1833 

Dell, Fransanah 1833 

Lindsay, John 1833 



Worman, Charles W 1834 (marble) 

Worman, William M 1835 (marble) 

Worman, William 1835 (marble) 

Danner, Catharine 1836 

Ecker, John, Jr 1836 

Magruder, Nathan 1836 

Mercer, double stone for 
2 children 1837 

Miller, James Augustus 1838 

Shafer, James H 1838 

Miller, Elizabeth Jane 1839 

Hartsock, Kitty Ann 1845 

Nusbaum, Amy 1849 

Dorsey, Sarah (recycled in 1902) 

Maryland Historical Society, 
201 W. Monument Street, Baltimore 

Parsons, John Marshall 1835 

Middletown Union Cemetery, 
Middletown, BC 

Bull, Susannah 1837 

Bull, William Henry 1837 

Nicodemus Family Cemetery 
near New Windsor 

Nicodemus, Ann Mariah 1839 

Pipe Creek "Brick" United Methodist 
Cemetery near New Windsor 

Baile, William 1836 

Hooper, Mary 1836 

Pipe Creek Church of the Brethren 
Cemetery near Uniontown 

Bond, John 1814 

Bond, William H 1823 

Zimmerman, Jacob 1834 

Bond, Henry 1835 

Snader, Mary 1835 

Snader, Joseph Englar 1836 

Engle, Elizabeth 1841 



Mary Ann Ashcraft 



39 



Hess, Noah 1845 (recycled) 

Snader, Ami Maria 1846 

Snader, Jacob 1847 

Englar, Daniel 1849 

Nusbaum, Elizabeth 1851 

St. John's Roman Catholic Cemetery, 
Westminster 

Williams, Hannah 1831 

St. Luke's (Winter's) Lutheran Cemetery 
near New Windsor 

Townsend, Samuel 1825 

Drach, Catharine 1834 

Townsend, David 1835 

Drach, Adam 1835 

Drach, Catharine 1835 

Kiler, Elizabeth 1836 

Drach, Catharine 1837 

Kiler, Sarah Ann 1838 

Kiler, Simon 1839 

Shuey, Rosanna 1839 

Hanna, Mary Magd 1841 

Long, Barbara 1841 

Smith, Eliza Ann 1841 

Kiler, Andrew 1842 

Kiler, Jacob 1844 

St. Peter's Rocky Hill Lutheran Cemetery 
near Woodsboro, FC 

Renner, Mary 1829 

Fogle, Mary 183? 

Lock, Susanna 1837 

Lock, Margaret Custy 1837 

Salem United Methodist Cemetery 
near Winfield 

Bennett, Benjamin 1834 

Bennett, Polly 1836 



Sam's Creek Church of the Brethren 
near Marston 

Young, Ann 1834 

Young, George 1834 

Taylorsville United Methodist Cemetery, 
Taylorsville 

Young, Benjamin F 1841 (marble) 

Tener/Hooper Family Cemetery 
near Taylorsville 

Zile, Conrad 1830 

Collins, John C 1837 

Hooper, Julia Ami 1855 

Hooper, Joseph T. F 1857 



40 



Gravemarkers and Memorials of King Philip's War 




Engraving of King Philip as imagined long after 

his death by silversmith patriot Paul Revere. 

Courtesy, American Antiquarian Society. 



41 



Gravemarkers and Memorials 
of King Philip's War 

Tom and Brenda Malloy 

On June 20, 1675, warriors under the command of King Philip 
attacked Swansea, Massachusetts, thus initiating a war that would 
result in the destruction of twenty-five towns or about one-fourth 
of the English settlements in New England. King Philip, the son of 
Massasoit, was the Christian name given to Metacom, the sachem of 
the Pokanoket-Wampanoags. For additional forces Philip allied himself 
with Narragansett, Nipmuck, and Abenaki Indians for a war that, in 
proportion to population, inflicted greater casualties than any other war 
in American history. The conflict became known as King Philip's War. 
This essay provides a narrative of events in the war that are documented 
by existing memorials and gravemarkers (Fig. 1). 

The day after the initial attack on Swansea, a relief force was sent to 
aid the town. The colonial soldiers established a command post at the 
settlement's Myles Garrison House and began to engage the Indians. 
During the next two days, nine men were killed and two were mortally 
wounded. Today, the approximate location of the Myles Garrison House 
is marked by a bronze tablet affixed to a large boulder. The top of the 
tablet reads: 

Myles Garrison House 

Site 

Near This Spot Stood 

The John Myles Garrison House 

The Place Of Meeting Of The Troops Of 

Massachusetts Bay And Plymouth Colonies 

Commanded By 

Major Thomas Savage And James Culsworth 

Who Marched To The Relief Of Swansea 

At the Opening Of King Philip's War 

A. D. 1675 

The bottom of the tablet reads, "These Fell In Swansea Slain By The 
Indians," followed by a listing of the names of eleven men. Because on 



42 



Gravemarkers and Memorials of King Philip's War 




X 




Ch 


X 


bD 


01 


C 


01 


X 


4-< 


-4- 

o 


c 


en 




o 


c 


4-> 





ns 






4-1 


o 


fi 




QJ 


WD 


s 


C 


CO 


£ 


01 

4-> 


o 


en 


X 


01 


CO 


> 


en 


flS 


4-> 
0) 


& 


CO 


-n 


3 


c 


X 


rs 


u 


CO 


</) 


m 


CO 




r3 


'— 


s 


o 


O 

n 





bB 



Tom and Brenda Malloy 



43 



many occasions soldiers and victims of King Philip's War were buried 
in unmarked graves where they fell, this boulder and plaque could be 
considered a cenotaph for these eleven men. 

A gravemarker for an early victim of the war can be found on the 
front lawn of a home in Berkley (Fig. 2), which is three towns to the 
east of Swansea. It marks the grave of Edward Bobbett. Bobbett lived 
in a home here with his wife and nine children. Upon hearing of the 
attack on Swansea, he began moving his family to the safety of nearby 
Taunton. With his family some distance ahead of him, Bobbett realized 
that they were being pursued by some Wampanoag. Edward, who was 
accompanied by a family dog, hid himself in a tree, but his position was 
given away by the dog's barking. The Indians fired into the tree and 
killed Bobbett. Soon after, he was buried where he fell and the location 
is now marked by a plaque on a small boulder. The plaque reads: "In 
Memory of Edward Bobbett, Slain Here by Indians, June 25, 1675 and 
Buried Near This Spot." Family descendants erected this replacement 




Fig. 2. Plaque marking Edward Bobbett's grave, 
Berkley, Massachusetts. 



44 Gravemarkers and Memorials of King Philip's War 



marker in 1911. At the same time as the replacement marker was erected, 
the crude headstone that originally marked the location was placed in 
the hands of a local historical society. 1 

The following month Wampanoags attacked Middleborough, burn- 
ing the settlement and forcing its evacuation. Evidence of this flight can 
be found on the Miller family marker in the Middleborough cemetery. 
On the side of the marker is inscribed: "Francis Miller Was One Of The 
Householders Driven Back To Plymouth From Middleborough By The 
Indians In 1675." The front of the monument provides evidence of the 
family's return: 

In Memory Of 

JOHN MILLER 

Died May 11, 1720, In The 97 th Year Of His Age 

He Was One Of The Householders Who 
Returned To Middleborough From Plymouth 

After King Philip's War And At Their First 

Meeting in June, 1677 Resolved To Repossess 

Their Estates 

A week after the attack on Middleborough, Nipmuck allies of the 
Wampanoag attacked Mendon, a town about thirty miles northwest of 
Middleborough. Today, at a traffic intersection, a boulder with a bronze 
tablet marks the approximate location of the assault. Not much is known 
about this attack, nor about the half dozen or so victims who were killed 
while at work in their fields. However, the tablet does list some of those 
who died: 

Near This Spot 

The Wife And Son Of 

Mathias Puffer 

The Son Of John Rockwood 

And Other Inhabitants Of Mendon 

Were Killed By Nipmuck Indians 

14 July 1675 

The Beginning Of King Philip's War 

In The Colony Of Massachusetts 



Tom and Brenda Malloy 45 



The marker notes that this attack began King Philip's War in the Colony 
of Massachusetts because the earlier attacks took place in Plymouth 
Colony. 

During the first week of August, at the central Massachusetts town 
of New Braintree, the Nipmucks launched an ambush. The attack, 
which has become known as Wheeler's Surprise, is described on a West 
Brookfield historical marker: 

One mile to the southwest, off the North Brookfield Road, 
Edward Hutchinson's Company seeking a parley with the 
Nipmucks was ambushed by Indians August 2, 1675, and 
more than half were slain. Captain Hutchinson died from 
his wounds. Captain Thomas Wheeler was wounded 
but escaped. 

Captain Edward Hutchinson, noted in the marker as dying from 
his wounds, expired seventeen days after the battle in the town of 
Marlborough while attempting to reach his home in Boston. Ironically, 
he died thirty-two years to the month after his mother, Ann Hutchinson, 
was killed by Indians on Long Island. Edward Hutchinson was the 
first burial in Marlborough's Spring Hill Cemetery, where his grave is 
marked by a plaque attached to a simple field stone. 2 The plaque, which 
wasn't placed until 1921, reads: "Captin Edward Hutchinson, Aged 
62 Yeares, Was Shot By Treacherous Indians August 2, 1675. Dyed 19 
August 1675." 

Four weeks after Wheeler's Surprise, another Indian ambush took 
place at a location just south of Northfield, a town on the New Hampshire 
border. Here a granite monument states: "On this plain Captain Richard 
Beers and his men were surprised by Indians Sept. 4, 1675." Captain 
Beers was in the command of thirty-six men who were attempting to 
evacuate the Northfield settlement that had been attacked by Indians 
two days previously. During the fight, twenty-one men were killed, 
including the captain. On September 6, another military unit was able 
to evacuate the dead from the Beers force. A historical marker located 
near the ambush site states: "Grave of Captain Richard Beers, killed by 
Indians on September 4, 1675. His monument is on the mountain side 
above." Today a modern marker on the front lawn of a private school 



46 Gravemarkers and Memorials of King Philip's War 



marks the burial spot. It reads: "The Grave of Capt. Richard Beers killed 
near this spot by Indians Sept. 4, 1675." This marker identifies only the 
proximity of Beers' s grave because it had been moved from its original 
location near the foundation of the school's main building. Prior to the 
erection of the modern stone, the grave was marked by two stones set as 
foot and head stones. 3 

Just two weeks after the Beers engagement, another ambush with 
even a greater loss of lives took place in the western Massachusetts 
town of Deerfield. Because of the high number of casualties, the location 
became known as Bloody Brook. On September 18, Captain Thomas 
Lathrop of Essex, Massachusetts, was in command of a sizeable military 
force, most of whom were in their teens and none of whom were over the 
age of twenty-two. The unit was escorting carts of food supplies south to 
the town of Hadley, which at that time was the western command post 
for the war. At what was originally known as Muddy Brook in South 
Deerfield, Lathrop stopped the head of the convoy to rest and to allow 
the back of the column to catch up. The soldiers relaxed their vigilance, 
placed their guns in the carts, and began to collect grapes growing on 
the side of the road. At this point, they were attacked by a large party 
of Nipmuck warriors. Lathrop was killed almost immediately. During 
the course of the fight, more than forty soldiers and eighteen teamsters 
were killed. Soon after the ambush, a relief force arrived on the scene 
and the fighting continued with the second force losing eleven men. The 
engagement finally ended with the arrival of a third force of colonial 
soldiers, who drove the Indians from the battlefield. 

In 1838 the Bloody Brook Monument was dedicated at the site of the 
battle. An inscription on the monument reads: 

On this ground Capt. Thomas Lathrop and 
eighty-four men under his command including 
eighteen teamsters from Deerfield, conveying stores 
from that town to Hadley were ambuscaded 
by about 700 Indians and the Captain and 
seventy-six men slain September 18 th 1675 (old style) 
The soldiers who fell were described by a 
contemporary Historian as "a choice Company 
of young men, the very flower of the County of 



Tom and Brenda Malloy 



47 




Fig. 3. Mass gravemarker for Captain Thomas Lathrop and soldiers 

under his command slain at Bloody Brook, 

South Deerfield, Massachusetts. 



48 Gravemarkers and Memorials of King Philip's War 



Essex none of who were ashamed to speak 
with the enemy in the gate." 

"And Sanguinetto tells you where the dead 
Made the earth wet and turned the unwilling 
waters red." 

"The Same of the slain is marked by a stone slab 
21 rods southerly of this monument." 

At the present time the stone slab that marks the grave "of the slain" 
is located on the front lawn of a home that is on the same street as the 
monument (Fig. 3). An inscription carved into the stone reads: "Grave 
of Capt. Lathrop and Men Slain by the Indians 1675." On the morning 
after the ambush, soldiers from the relief forces had returned to bury 
their dead comrades. A local historian relates that "scouts were sent out, 
sentinels stationed to prevent a surprise, and the melancholy duties of 
the day begun. Parties were detailed to gather the dead and workmen 
to prepare a common grave. Tenderly the mangled bodies of the victims 
were borne to the spot, and slowly and reverentially they were laid in the 
bosom of mother earth." 4 

Because the early owners of the property had moved the stone slab 
several times, in 1835 a committee was formed to locate the precise 
location of the mass grave. Guided by hearsay, the committee was able 
to locate the grave, which contained the bones of about thirty men. This 
was all that remained of the estimated sixty originally interred bodies. 
Thus this marker probably stands as the oldest monument to veterans in 
America. It should also be noted that at the same time that the committee 
verified the location of this grave, they also reported finding, half a mile 
away, a grave containing the remains of ninety-six Native Americans. 
It was assumed that this was a burial spot for Indians killed at Bloody 
Brook. However, this was never proven and the location remains 
unmarked. 5 

During the autumn following the battle of Bloody Brook, a com- 
mission of the United Colonies planned an attack on the Narragansett 
fortification in what is now South Kingston, Rhode Island. The 
fortification was located in an area known as The Great Swamp and the 



Tom and Brenda Malloy 49 



ensuing battle became known as The Great Swamp Fight. Located near 
the site, a historical marker reads: 

Three quarters of a mile to the 
southward on an island in the Great 
Swamp The Narragansett Indians were 
Decisively defeated By the United 
Forces of the Massachusetts Bay, 
Connecticut and Plymouth Colonies, 
Sunday, December 19, 1675. 

As the historical marker directs, one can walk down a dirt road to where 
the actual site of the battle is designated by a large rough-hewn granite 
monolith that was unveiled during a dedication ceremony in 1906 (Fig. 
4). 6 On the monolith is inscribed: 

The Great Swamp Fight 
19 December 1675 

Around the monolith are four large granite blocks, each inscribed 
with the name of one of the four colonies that participated in the battle: 
"Massachusetts," "Plymouth," "Connecticut," and "Rhode Island." The 
Indian fortification that stood on this location consisted of a five-acre 
village of about 500 wigwams. The whole area was surrounded by a 
timber palisade with spiked stakes and a water moat. Within the seem- 
ingly impregnable fort was a population of about 3,000 Narragansett and 
Wampanoag men, women, and children. 

On December 19, a 1,000-man unit of the united colonial forces 
attacked the stronghold. After breaking through the palisade, the 
soldiers set the village on fire. During the course of the battle, several 
hundred Indians were killed, less than half of whom were warriors. 

The English casualties consisted of 68 killed and 150 wounded, and 
more were to die during an eighteen-mile trek through a snowstorm 
to Wickford, or what is now North Kingston, Rhode Island. In North 
Kingston, soldiers marched to the safety of Smith's Block House, which 
had been the staging area for the attack at The Great Swamp. Here they 
buried some of their dead in a mass grave, which is now marked by a 



50 



Gravemarkers and Memorials of King Philip's War 





Fig. 4. Granite monolith marking the site of The Great Swamp Fight, 

South Kingston, Rhode Island. Four smaller granite blocks 

around the monolith are each inscribed with the name of 

one of the colonies represented in the battle. 



tablet on a boulder (Fig. 5). The tablet reads: 



HERE 

WERE BURIED 

IN ONE GRAVE 

FORTY MEN 

Who Died In The Swamp Fight 

Or On The Return March 

To 

Richard Smith's Block House 

December 1675 



Tom and Brenda Malloy 



51 



Near this monument is a second boulder with a tablet that 
memorializes one of the individuals in the mass grave. This tablet 
reads: 

To The Memory Of 

CAPTAIN 

JOHN GALLUP 

Killed In The 

Swamp Fight 

1675 

Erected By The 

Gallup Family 

Association 

1969 

John Gallup emigrated from England to become the first sheriff of 
the Plymouth Colony. He eventually settled, in 1654, in Stonington, 




Fig. 5. Plaque marking the mass grave of forty soldiers killed during 
The Great Swamp Fight, North Kingston, Rhode Island. 



52 Gravemarkers and Memorials of King Philip's War 



Connecticut, on a grant of land that was given to him for his services 
in the earlier Pequot Indian War. He became familiar with the regional 
Native American language to the point that he was able to become the 
commander of Mohegan allies during King Philip's War. Gallup, who 
was over sixty years old, was commanding the Mohegan unit during the 
Swamp Fight and became one of six captains killed in the battle. 7 

The first major Indian attack of the new year came on February 10 
when a combined force of Nipmuck, Narragansett, and Wampanoag 
warriors attacked the central Massachusetts town of Lancaster. The 
town consisted of about fifty families clustered around six garrison 
houses. One of the garrison houses was the home of the minister Joseph 
Rowlandson, who, ironically, at the time of the attack was in Boston 
seeking military support for his community. English casualties from the 
attack included twenty-six killed and twenty-four captured. Amongst 
the captives were Mary Rowlandson, the minister's wife, and her three 
children. During the attack, Rowlandson and her six-year-old daughter 
received a wound from the same bullet. The captives spent their first 
night about a mile away from the Rowlandson Garrison. A historical 
marker near the location reads: 

On the crest of George Hill 
nearby is situated Rowlandson 
Rock where the captives from 
the Rowlandson Garrison House 
passed their first night after 
the burning of Lancaster by 
the Indians February 10, 1675-76 



Later in her published narrative entitled "The Sovereignty and 
Goodness of God," Rowlandson wrote that on the first night, "There 
remained nothing to me but one poor wounded babe and it seemed 
at present worse than death that it was in such pitiful condition." 8 The 
"poor wounded babe" died eight days later near this previously used 
campsite in what is now the town of New Braintree. A marker near the 
burial location reads: 



Tom and Brenda Malloy 53 



Sarah P. Rowlandson 

Born Sept. 15, 1669 

Shot By Indians At Lancaster 

Feb. 10, 1676 

Taken to Winnimissett Camp 

Died Feb. 18, 1676 

In her narrative Rowlandson commented: 

I asked them what they had done with it? They told me it 
was upon the hill: Then they went and shewed me where 
it was, where I saw the ground was newly digged, and 
there they told me they had buried it. Then I left my child 
in the wilderness, and must commit it, and myself in this 
wilderness-condition to him who is above all. 9 

After nearly three months of captivity, Mary Rowlandson would be 
redeemed for a ransom of twenty pounds at the base of Mount Wachusett 
in central Massachusetts. Here a historical marker states: 

REDEMPTION ROCK 
Upon this rock fifty feet west 
of this spot Mary Rowlandson 
wife of the first minister of 
Lancaster, was redeemed from 
captivity under King Philip. The 
narrative of her experience is 
one of the classics of colonial 
literature. 

Redemption Rock, where the ransom was paid, is engraved with: 

Upon this rock May 2 nd 1676 

was made the agreement for the ransom 

of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson of Lancaster 

between the Indians and John Hoar of Concord 

King Philip was with the Indians but 

refused his consent. 



54 Gravemarkers and Memorials of King Philip's War 



Mary would be reunited with her husband, son, and daughter, who 
were also captured in the attack on Lancaster, and two years later her 
narrative would be published. 

The month following Mary Rowlandson's capture, a force of Ply- 
mouth Colony soldiers was pursuing a large band of Narragansetts in 
the area of Pawtucket Falls, Rhode Island. The English force numbered 
sixty-three men and twenty-nine native allies under the command of 
Capt. Michael Pierce of Scituate, Massachusetts. The two forces engaged 
at this location in Central Falls, and the battle site is presently a public 
park named after the English commander. The park is also an unmarked 
burying ground for forty-two colonial soldiers who were killed during 
the ensuing battle. 10 A historical plaque at the site describes the day's 
events: 

Due to land disputes and broken peace treaties between 
the local natives and early English settlers, King Philip's 
War took place for fourteen months during 1675 and 1676. 
Captain Michael Pierce's fight with the natives occurred on 
this spot in March of 1676 From Dexter' s Ledge . . . native 
scouts saw Pierce's troops approaching. One hundred 
natives and seventy settlers perished in the battle. Ten 
settlers escaped to what are now the Monastery Grounds in 
Cumberland. Only one lived to tell the tale. 

The inscription states that ten settlers escaped to nearby Cumberland, 
Rhode Island, but that only one would survive. In Cumberland a 
monument marks the common grave of nine men who survived Pierce's 
fight but were later executed by the Indians. The location has become 
known as Nine Men's Misery. However, the plaque in Cumberland 
gives a somewhat different version of the story. This plaque reads: 

Nine Men's Misery 

On This Spot 

Where They Were Slain By 

The Indians 

Were Buried The Nine Soldiers 

Captured In Pierce's Fight 

March 26, 1676 



Tom and Brenda Malloy 55 



This inscription states that the soldiers were captured and were brought 
to the location, whereas the one in Central Falls states that the men 
escaped to this spot and were then killed. Either way, it was several 
weeks before the bodies were discovered and buried with their grave 
marked by a rock wall. The present mound of stones marking the grave 
was erected in the early twentieth century, and the granite marker and 
plaque in front of the mound was placed there by the Rhode Island 
Historical Society in 1928. When the land that the monument stands 
on was purchased by the Cistercian Order as part of their monastery 
grounds, the remains of the nine men were exhumed and given to the 
Rhode Island Historical Society. During the 1976 bicentennial celebration, 
the remains were reburied on the original site, which now belongs to the 
town of Cumberland. 11 

To the west of Boston, Marlborough was attacked on the same day 
as Pierce's Fight. One settler was killed in the raid, but there is no burial 
marker for this individual. However, a historical marker in the cemetery 
next to where the town's meeting house once stood provides information 
about the day's events: 

HIGH SCHOOL COMMON 
Site Of First Meeting House Completed In 1662, 
Rev. William Brimsmead Minister It Was Built Within The 
Limits Of The Indian Planting Field Which Was Part Of The 
Ockoocangansett Plantation, And Was A Source Of Hostile 
Feelings Toward The Settlers. It Was Attacked And Burned 
March 26, 1676 By King Philip While A Meeting Was In 
Progress. The Inhabitants Securing Safety In The Nearby 
William Ward House One Of The Designated Garrisons. 
During The Raid 13 Houses, 11 Barns And A Large Portion 
Of The Livestock Were Destroyed. 

The attack on Marlborough had caused the town to become partially 
evacuated, leaving its neighboring settlement of Sudbury vulnerable. 
In the early morning of April 21, just four weeks after the assault on 
Marlborough, a combined force of about 500 warriors attacked Sudbury. 
At first the strike was directed towards the Deacon Haynes Garrison 
House. A site marker reads: 



56 Gravemarkers and Memorials of King Philip's War 



Site Of The 

Haynes Garrison House 

Home Of Deacon John Haynes 

Here The Settlers 

By Their Brave Defense 

Helped Save The Town 

When The Indians Tried 

To Destroy Sudbury 

18-21 April 1676 

The inhabitants of the Haynes Garrison were able to fend off the 
warriors, who then turned their attention on the town's second most 
important fortification: 

The Goodenow Garrison House 
Portion Of The Goodenow Garrison 
House In Which Settlers 
Took Refuge From King Philip's 
Indians During The Battle Of 
April 18-21, 1676 

In the meantime, coming to the town's relief was a combined force 
that had been stationed in Marlborough. It included seventy men under 
the command of Captain Samuel Wadsworth and fifty in the command 
of Captain Samuel Brocklebank. Upon its arrival in Sudbury, the relief 
force found heavy resistance, and a historical marker tells the rest of the 
story: 

Sudbury Fight 
One-Quarter Mile North 
Took Place The Sudbury Fight 
With King Philip's Indians On 
April 21, 1676. Captain Samuel 
Wadsworth Fell With Twenty- 
Eight Of His Men; Their Monument 
Stands In The Burying Ground. 



Tom and Brenda Malloy 57 



The monument referred to on the historical marker stands in the 
Wadsworth Cemetery, named after the colonial commander. It is a large 
granite obelisk surrounded by a Victorian cast iron fence. Erected in 
1852, it stands on the second burial site of the men in the Sudbury Fight. 
Their original burial site was a mass grave fifty feet south of the obelisk. 
A local historian described the burial: 

Thus were the slain soldiers buried on that April morning, 
in the stillness of the forest, far away from their kindred, 
friends and homes . . . though scattered, they were borne 
to one common place of burial and a rough heap of stones 
was all that marked that lone forest grave. Such was that 
soldiers' sepulchre, a mound in the woods, left to grow gray 
with the clustering moss of years. 12 

When the grave was opened for the reinterment, it was described as 
being "about six feet square, in which the bodies were placed in tiers at 
right angles to each other. Some of the skeletons were large, and all well 
preserved." 13 An inscription on the monument reads: 

This Monument Is Erected By The Commonwealth Of 
Massachusetts And The Town Of Sudbury In Grateful 
Remembrance Of The Service And Suffering Of The 
Founders Of The State And Especially In Honor Of 

Capt. S. Wadsworth of Milton 

Capt. Brocklebank of Rowley 

Lieut. Sharp of Brookline 
And Twenty Six Others, Men Of Their Command, Who Fell 
Near This Spot On The 18th Of April 1676 While Defending 
The Frontier Settlements Against The Allied Indian Forces 
Of Philip Of Pokanoket. 

1852 

At the base of the monument is a gravestone that was erected in 1730 
at the original gravesite by Samuel Wadsworth's son, Benjamin (Fig. 6). 14 
It reads: 



58 



Gravemarkers and Memorials of King Philip's War 



Capt. Samuel Wadsworth of 
Milton, His Lieut. Sharp of 
Brookline, Capt. Brocklebank 
of Rowley, With about 
Twenty -Six Other Souldrs 
Fighting for Ye Defence Of 
their COUNTRY Were Slain 
By Ye Indian Enemy, April 18 th 
1676, & lye Buried in this Place 

On the Rhode Island border, several towns south of Sudbury, is 
the town of North Attleborough, where the Woodcock Garrison House 
stands (the present structure is a replacement of the original building). 
During King Philip's War, this site was used on various occasions as 
a staging area for colonial troops. Across the street from the garrison 
is the Woodcock Historic Burial Ground. Here in April of 1676 John 




M /ft A* W*^ j*~'**» € > / \ v ' 

C^pl SAMl JO, WAI^ORTH' of 
MllJfON, His* I>U* SHAJ1P of 
KlioOKJJNSta^ BroclSANK 
of Pxbf^n With about 
Twenty-Six Other Sauicl 1 '* 
Fitting, for % f vdf iSfce of 
thfeir COUNTRY, Were flaip 
By^ lnclia.n Siemy April 18 
1676. b) lye Buried imihis Pla 



Fig. 6. Original marker for the mass grave of soldiers killed during 
The Sudbury Fight, Sudbury, Massachusetts. 



Tom and Brenda Malloy 



59 




Fig. 7. Granite marker commemorating the first King Philip's War 

burials in what later became the Woodcock Historic Burial Ground, 

North Attleborough, Massachusetts. 



Woodcock's son Nathaniel "was shot by Indians and was buried where 
he fell, nearly in the centre of the yard." 15 Eventually other victims of 
the war were buried at the location, and in 1694 John Woodcock deeded 
the parcel to the town, providing for the community's oldest cemetery. 16 
Presently there are over 100 stones in the cemetery, but none of them 



60 



Gravemarkers and Memorials of King Philip's War 



identify any victims of the war. The only recognition for the original 
interments is a small granite marker with the date "1676" (Fig. 7). 

About a month after the Sudbury Fight and the shooting incident 
in North Attleborough, the colonial authorities became concerned over 
a large Indian encampment on the Connecticut River in northwestern 
Massachusetts. Captain William Turner led a unit of about 140 mounted 
men to what was called the Peskeompskut camp in the present town 
of Montague. Here, during the night of May 19 at what is now known 
as Turner's Falls, the captain launched an attack on the sleeping Indian 
camp. A monument at the attack site (Fig. 8) states: 

Captain William Turner 

With 145 Men Surprised And 

Destroyed Over 300 Indians 

Encamped At This Place 

May 19, 1676 









s»? i i 



W£* 



a ftit^m®. mi. \i 




Fig. 8. Falls Fight Monument, town border, 
Montague-Gill, Massachusetts. 



Tom and Brenda Malloy 



61 



WILLIAM ^ TURNEi 

A MUTANT CQHHAI8EI BIJtISG UK 

mum mun.mm was miles 

»EAl BFJE IS A tETUAI AFTU LEAJJK 
AKASSACtEOFIXBtAXSHSlllKAT 
TUBE* FAUS IS Sill OS KAY ffl 1676 




s? 



Fig. 9. Two markers at the gravesite of Captain William Turner, 
Greenfield, Massachusetts. 



62 Gravemarkers and Memorials of King Philip's War 



During the initial attack, many of the warriors fled, leaving the 
soldiers to kill mostly women, children, and the elderly. However, the 
warriors were able to regroup, counterattack, and force a colonial retreat. 
Turner fled to what today is the present town of Greenfield, where he 
was fatally shot on the bank of the Green River. Next to the river, the 
location of Turner's death is identified by a historical sign and by a 
plaque on a boulder (Fig. 9). The sign reads: 

Capt. William Turner 
A Military Commander During King 
Philip's War. Capt. Turner Was Killed 
Near Here In A Retreat After Leading 
A Massacre Of Indians Fishing At 
Turner Falls In Gill On May 19, 1676. 

The plaque reads: 

CAPTAIN WILLIAM TURNER OF BOSTON 

A Soldier In King Philip's War 

Was Mortally Wounded 

While Crossing The Pukcommeacon River 

And Fell On The West Bank May 19, 1676 

On The Retreat After The "Falls Fight" 

At Peskeompskut (Turner's Falls) 

Forty Men Of His Command Fell That Day 

Captain Samuel Holyoke With The Survivors 

Fought Their Way Back to Hatfield 

Sometime after the Falls Fight, a scouting party discovered and 
buried Turner's body. According to a Greenfield town historian, in 1874, 
almost two hundred years after the burial, a local individual by the name 
of Judge Thompson uncovered human bones that he believed were 
Captain Turner's remains. The bones were placed in a box and stored in 
a nearby mill. However, several years later these remains were lost when 
the mill was destroyed by a fire. 17 Consequently, these markers stand as 
Turner's cenotaph. 

By August, troops in Rhode Island under the command of Captain 
Benjamin Church were in direct pursuit of King Philip. On August 12, 



Tom and Brenda Malloy 63 



Church and his troops were able to surround and attack Philip's camp 
in a Bristol, Rhode Island, swamp. Philip and five of his men were 
killed. Philip himself was shot by a colonial native ally. Church pulled 
Philip's body from the mud, and stating that the Pokanoket sachem had 
been responsible for many English bodies to lie unburied, he ordered 
it beheaded, halved, and quartered. The quarters were hung in trees 
and Philip's head was sent to Plymouth, where it was placed on a pole 
and remained for the next twenty years. One of Philip's hands, with a 
distinguishing scar, was provided as a reward to the Indian who shot 
him. 18 

Dying forty-two years after King Philip was killed, Benjamin Church, 
in contrast to his antagonist, was provided with a very respectable 
burial. His box tomb stands next to similar tombs for other members of 
his family in the burying ground of Little Compton, Rhode Island (Fig. 
10). A tablet in front of Church's tomb reads: 

This Tablet 

Erected By The Rhode Island Society 

Of Colonial Wars 

In Recognition Of The Exceptional 

Service Rendered By 

COL. BENJAMIN CHURCH 

His Fearless Leadership 

And Effective Command During 

King Philip's War 

1675-1677 

The top of the box tomb is inscribed, 

Here lyeth interred the body 

Of the Honorable 

Col. Benjamin Church, Esq. 

Who departed this life, January 17, 1717-8 in 

The 78 year of his age 

Next to the inscription a metal logo of the United States Rangers has 
been riveted to the tomb in what appears to be a misguided attempt to 
recognize Church's innovative use of guerilla war tactics. 



64 



Gravemarkers and Memorials of King Philip's War 




Fig. 10. Commemorative marker, 

Little Compton, Rhode Island, at the foot of the 

matching box tombs of Captain Benjamin Church and his wife. 



Estimates for the death count during King Philip's War run as high 
as 2,500 for the English, or five percent of the New England population, 
and 5,000 for the Native Americans, or forty percent of their population. 19 
With a death toll of as many as 2,500 colonists, one might think that there 
would be more extant gravemarkers, but not if one considers that at the 
time of the war the erection of permanent gravemarkers was just coming 
into practice, and if one had been erected, it would have had to survive 
over three hundred years. As a result, only a handful of gravestones 
from this time period remains. Also, there is the fact that, according 
to Benjamin Church's own words, many of the War's victims went 
unburied. Consequently, most of the markers mentioned in this article 
are replacement stones or memorial markers that were erected well 
after the events. Further, it should be noticed that except for a couple 
of somewhat sympathetic historical markers, there are no markers 
for Native Americans, which leaves us to ponder the concept that the 
history of a war is written by the victors. 



Tom and Brenda Malloy 65 

NOTES 

All photos are by the authors. 

I Eric B. Schultz and Michael Tougias, King Philip's War: Vie History and Legacy 
of America's Forgotten Conflict (Woodstock, VT: Countryman Press, 1999), 95. 

: Charles Hudson, Histon/ of the Town of Marlborough (Boston, 1862), 69. 

3 Schultz and Tougias, 166-8. 

4 George Sheldon, A History ofDeerfield, Massachusetts (Deerfield, MA, 1895), 
104. 

5 Schultz and Tougias. 

6 Jill Lepore, Vie Name of War: King Philip's War and the Origins of American 
Identity (New York: Knopf, 1998), 237. 

7 Patricia Sabin, http://wivzo.rootszveh.com/--ctnewlonAnos/lohiiGalhifiBio.html 
New London County, CT Gen Web, "John Gallup Biography," n.d., 

(1 December, 2002). " 

8 Neil Salisbury, ed., Vie Sovereignty and Goodness of God by Mary Rozvlandson 
with Related Documents (Boston: Bedford Books, 1997), 71. 

9 Salisbury, 75. 

10 Douglas Leach, Flintlock and Tomahaivk (New York: Norton, 1958), 167. 

II Schultz and Tougias, 281-82. 

12 Alfred Sereno Hudson, Vie Histon/ of Sudbury, Massachusetts (Sudbury, MA, 
1889), 250. 

13 Alfred Hudson, 251. 

14 Alfred Hudson, 250. 

15 John Daggett, A Sketch of the History of Attleborough From Its Settlement to the 
Division (Boston, 1894), 107. 

16 Daggett, 108. 

17 Schultz and Tougias, 225. 

18 Lepore, 173. 

19 Salisbury, 1. Schultz and Tougias place the death toll at a much lower figure 
of 800 English colonists. 



66 



Judah Monis's Puzzling Gravestone 




Fig. 1. First Parish Church, Northborough, Massachusetts. 



67 



Judah Monis's Puzzling Gravestone as a 
Reflection of his Enigmatic Identity 

David Mayer Gradwohl 

Introduction 

Northborough, Massachusetts, is located some thirty miles west 
of Boston. The community and its First Parish Church congregation 
date back to colonial times. With its stately Georgian facade and 
imposing bell tower, the present First Parish Church structure speaks 
quintessentially to the early Christian traditions of New England (Fig. I). 1 
Adjacent to the church is an old burying ground where the graves of the 
town's founding residents are marked by slate headstones exhibiting 
a genre of iconography, scripts, and epitaphs abundantly reported in 
the literature for colonial period cemeteries in the northeastern United 
States. 2 A slate ledger stone, elevated on a mortared stone foundation in 
the manner of a box tomb or raised tomb, signifies the grave of Rev. John 
Martyn, the first minister of First Parish Church (Fig. 2). Nearby is the 
monument identifying the grave of his brother-in-law, Judah Monis. 




Fig. 2. Burying ground of the First Parish church showing the box 

tomb of Rev. John Martyn (center). The slate headstone of Judah 

Monis is visible on the far left in the front row of gravestones. 



Judah Monis's Puzzling Gravestone 



In his tome chronicling the history of Northborough, Josiah C. Kent 
commented: "We seldom see anyone wandering around in our old 
churchyard. Yet it is worth visiting, for it contains at least one gravestone 
of rare interest — that of Rabbi Judah Monis, the first Christian Jew in 
North America. An occasional visitor comes to see it; but we fear that 
it is entirely unknown to most of our townspeople." 3 Over the years, 
however, various scholars have taken an interest in Judah Monis and 
the inscription on his gravestone. As of 1997, 1 had found six published 
sources that include differing transcriptions of the text carved on Monis's 
headstone. 4 Curious about these varying renditions and intrigued by 
the person oxymoronically described as "the first Christian Jew in 
North America," I made my own journey to Northborough during the 
spring of 1998, wandered around the impressive old churchyard, and 
(with the help of my wife, Hanna Rosenberg Gradwohl) documented 
the gravestone of Judah Monis. I found that none of those previously 
published transcriptions of the carved text is complete or accurate. 
Furthermore, none of those published sources describes the gravestone 
form or its mortuary symbolism. 5 Neither do any of these sources relate 
the data on the gravestone to the enigmas of Judah Monis's life. 

To the anthropologist interested in the relationship between material 
culture and identity, this paradox is a clarion call for analysis and 
explanation. In the following discussion, I first briefly describe the 
gravestone of Judah Monis in its temporal and cultural context. Second, 
I summarize what has been documented or suggested concerning the life 
of Judah Monis and his interesting role in colonial American history. This 
background is necessary to fully evaluate the inscription and symbols on 
the gravestone. Third, I provide a detailed analysis of the monument 
including its form, mortuary symbols, and complex inscription. Finally, 
I discuss the significance of Judah Monis's gravestone in terms of 
his identities that stem from his own actions, the perceptions of his 
contemporaries, and assessments by subsequent scholars. 

The Gravestone at First Glance 

The casual observer might stroll past the gravestone of Judah Monis 
without a second glance, so familiar are its overall form, mortuary 
symbols, and style of script (Fig. 3). The headstone would seem to 
represent just another deceased First Parish congregation member who 
had been an accepted and integrated member of the living community. 



David Mayer Gradwohl 




Fig. 3. Judah Mortis, 1764, Northborough, Massachusetts. 
Carved by William Park. 



70 Judah Monis's Puzzling Gravestone 



A typical gravestone form for this time period, Monis's monument 
has a tripartite shape with a large central arch or tympanum and two 
smaller side panel arches or shoulders. The relatively elaborate carved 
designs occur in both positive high relief and negative bas-relief. In 
addition, there is a rather long and elaborate inscription. As noted by 
Harriette Merrifield Forbes in her classic book, Gravestones of Early New 
England and the Men Who Made Them, 1653-1800, first published in 1927, 
"The gravestones of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries carried a 
message to the passer-by both by the epitaphs and even more by the 
designs." 5 In Graven Images: New England Stonecarving and its Symbols, 
1650-1815, Allan Ludwig notes that "Puritan funerary art shows a deep 
strain of passion and a naive delight in mystical symbolism. Between 
1668 and 1815 this art slowly deepened in meaning and ripened into 
forms and symbols which in any other culture would be immediately 
interpreted as the visual manifestations of a deeply mystical religion." 7 
Most of the symbols and artistic conventions employed on early New 
England gravestones were reinforced in the minds of Puritans by 
imagery in woodcuts and illustrations in Bibles as well as by verbal 
imagery heard in sermons. 8 

As I discuss in a subsequent section of this essay, the message on 
Monis's gravestone integrates artistic symbols clearly recognizable 
in colonial times with an inscription written in the manner of that 
period. Monis's headstone caught Harriette Forbes's eye because it is 
so typical of gravestone art and epitaphs of early New England. Forbes 
included a brief description and photograph of Monis's headstone in 
her well-known study. Referring to the location of Monis's gravestone 
in Northborough, she commented: "His grave is in the little burying- 
ground there back of the Unitarian Church, marked by the stone made 
without doubt by William Park, which cost his estate three pounds, 
an architectural stone not shunning at all the terrible fact of death, 
but suggesting something beyond the drawn curtains and also the full 
fruition of grain, 'sown in corruption, and raised in incorruption.'" 9 A 
closer look at Monis's gravestone will reveal some puzzling ideological 
and material associations reflecting a unique person of complex and, 
indeed, conflicting identities. 

Biographical Sketch of Judah Monis 

Although numerous students of history and religion have written 



David Mayer Gradwohl 7 1 



about Judah Monis, many aspects of his life and motivations remain 
sketchy and controversial. The enigmas concerning Monis begin with 
the place and date of his birth. Various sources suggest that he was born 
in Italy (some specify Venice) or Algiers. 10 Others, however, say Morocco 
or "one of the Barbary states." 11 On the basis of his Iberian name and 
the fact that he knew Spanish, Monis is thought by many authorities to 
have been descended from Spanish or Portuguese parents as reported 
in Vie New England Courant on April 2, 1722. 12 Perhaps, as some scholars 
speculate, his family was among those Sephardic Jews who were expelled 
from Iberia in the fifteenth century. 13 Or possibly, others theorize, they 
were among the so-called Conversos, Marranos, or Crypto Jews who in 
public masqueraded as Christians. 14 Scholars usually cite Monis's birth 
date as February 4, 1683, a computation arrived at from data (which they 
presume to be correct) included on his gravestone, which says that Monis 
died on April 25, 1764, at the age of 81 years, 2 months, and 21 days. 

Monis is said to have been a rabbinical student at Jewish academies in 
Italy — at Leghorn (Livorno) and possibly Venice — and also Amsterdam, 
Holland. 15 The origin of this information appears to be the 1722 article in 
The New England Courant, which states that Monis "commenced Mashkil 
Venabon, in the Jewish academies of Leghorn and Amsterdam, etc." That 
title has been identified as originating in Italy to denote a student who 
has achieved some proficiency in Jewish law (Halakhah) as opposed to 
the title Hakam, which the Sephardim used for a fully-ordained rabbi. 16 
Nevertheless, Tlie New England Courant article also stated that Monis had 
served as a rabbi for synagogues in Jamaica and New York after leaving 
Europe. The epitaph on Monis's gravestone identifies him as a rabbi. This 
matter is disputed, however, by no less an authority than the late Rabbi 
Jacob R. Marcus, often acknowledged as the dean of American Jewish 
history. Of Monis's credentials Marcus wrote: "Although he received a 
good Jewish education, it is doubtful that he was a rabbi, as his Christian 
associates assumed and as his epitaph claims. Actually, it would seem, 
he had been a scribe and ... a teacher in Jewish communities." 17 

Documentary evidence shows that Monis was admitted as a freeman 
in New York City on February 28, 1715/ 16. 18 Sources differ as to his 
occupation there. He is variously described as a merchant, proprietor of 
a store, teacher of Hebrew to both Jews and Christians, rabbi, hazzan (a 
cantor or sexton), and schochet (ritual slaughterer). 19 In terms of his skills 
and knowledge as well as the needs of those around him, it is possible 



72 Judah Morris's Puzzling Gravestone 



that Monis could have served in all these capacities. 

Meanwhile, Monis was apparently working on a Hebrew grammar 
and corresponding with Christian clergymen regarding the study of 
Hebrew. By 1720 he had moved to Boston and attracted the notice of 
Christian luminaries including Increase Mather (minister of Boston's 
Second Church and early president of Harvard College) and his son 
Cotton Mather. 20 In June of 1720, Monis submitted a letter to the Harvard 
Corporation with the hope that the college might hire him as a teacher 
and adopt his grammar as a textbook. 21 At that time, Hebrew was a 
required subject at Harvard and some other colleges in New England 
as a mark of Biblical scholarship and intellectual achievement. 22 The 
seals of Harvard as well as Columbia and Dartmouth even contained 
Hebrew inscriptions. Hebrew was taught at Harvard by Christian tutors 
(as opposed to instructors or professors) who had varying proficiencies 
in the language. Probably because hiring a Jewish faculty member was 
unprecedented, the Harvard Corporation delayed making a decision 
for nearly two years. Harvard, it should be noted, was not alone in this 
situation. As Samuel Eliot Morison observed in his Three Centuries of 
Harvard, 1636-1936 : "At Oxford and Cambridge at this time, and in most 
of the universities of Christendom, no Jew could be admitted to a degree, 
on account of the religious tests and oaths that went with it." 23 

The intervening period, however, was not idle time for Monis. He 
apparently ran a small store and taught Hebrew to Harvard tutors 
and other interested individuals. 24 He also studied, or at least gained 
a greater familiarity with, Christianity through his association with 
various clergymen in Cambridge and the Boston area. 25 Monis was a 
particularly enticing prospect to Increase and Cotton Mather, who were 
obsessed with the idea of converting Jews to Christianity. They were 
ecstatic, therefore, when Monis formally embraced Protestantism and 
was publicly baptized on March 27, 1722, at a service held in College 
Hall at Harvard. 26 In fact, Increase Mather had been scheduled to deliver 
the sermon at this service. Due to the aging Mather's ailing health, 
however, the Reverend Benjamin Colman (pastor of the Brattle Street 
Church) delivered the sermon, entitled "Moses, A Witness Unto our 
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ." Monis's own discourse, "The Truth," 
argued that Jesus was indeed the messiah presaged in the Pentateuch. 
Monis subsequently produced two essay sequels in the next few months. 
In "The Whole Truth" Monis endeavored to prove the divinity of Jesus; 



David Mayer Gradwohl 73 



in "Nothing but the Truth" he pleaded the case for the doctrine of the 
Trinity. Later on in 1722, the Daniel Henchman Shop published and sold 
a booklet containing a preface by Increase Mather, the sermon by Colman, 
and the three discourses "written by Mr. Monis himself." Some scholars 
have questioned the complete veracity of the latter statement given the 
facts that (a) the discourses are well written and Monis' s command of 
English was reportedly weak, and (b) the Christian theological concepts 
are expressed at a level of sophistication beyond Monis' s expected 
proficiency. Marcus even speculated that Monis's published discourses 
"were surely ghostwritten for him." 27 Whatever the case may be, Monis's 
conversion and baptism were newsworthy enough to be reported in 77ie 
New England Courant on April 2, 1722. Monis was referred to as "learned 
and ingenious," and his discourses were carefully deliberated over 
throughout Boston's religious community. 

Scholars — then and now — have been divided on the question of 
whether Monis's conversion was sincere or opportunistic. 28 On one 
hand, Monis was a participant in religious services at the First Church in 
Cambridge and outwardly professed his Christian faith. Though some 
members of the Christian community remained skeptical of Monis's 
motives, the majority accepted his conversion as a testament to the 
truth of their religion. Monis's conversion from Judaism to Christianity 
certainly supported the millennial thoughts of Puritan times in that such 
actions by Jews were assumed to be the precursor of the reappearance 
of the Christian messiah. 29 On the other hand, it is said that Monis 
continued to observe the Sabbath on Saturday. 30 Unfortunately, the 
writers who make this claim do not explain what these observances 
were. Monis reportedly taught Hebrew classes on Saturday. But did he 
otherwise "rest" on that day? Was the Sabbath welcomed by the lighting 
of candles in his home? Did he usher in the Sabbath by blessing wine? 
Did he engage in prayers? Did he study the Torah? While no explicit 
evidence exists for any of these or other specific Sabbath observances 
by Monis, one writer argued that "his observance of the Jewish Sabbath 
is proof enough of his adherence to the ancestral creed, and that, like 
the Marranos of Spain, Portugal, and South America, he remained 
loyal to Israel at heart, whilst apparently devoted to Christianity." 31 
Understanding this whole matter is further complicated by the fact that 
some Christian ministers and lay people in America and Europe during 
the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries observed Saturday as a day of 



74 Judah Morris's Puzzling Gravestone 



rest and prayers. Most Protestant ministers of the day not only studied 
Hebrew, but some also wore skullcaps and emulated rabbinical practices 
in other ways. 

The genuineness of Monis's motivations for converting to Christianity 
may remain debatable. The results of his action, however, are clear. At 
its meeting held on April 30, 1722 (just 26 days after Monis's public 
baptism), the Harvard Corporation voted "that Mr. Judah Monis be 
improved as an Instructor of the Hebrew Language in the College, and 
that he be allow' d out of the College Treasury £50 for one Year from this 
day." 32 Monis negotiated for a higher salary. The Corporation considered 
this request and at their meeting on June 13, 1722, the Overseers officially 
appointed Monis with an annual salary of £70. 33 

Monis's conversion to Christianity also provided opportunities 
to find a wife. On January 18, 1723/4, he married Abigail Marrett. 34 
She was the daughter of Hannah Marrett and Edward Marrett, the 
glazier for Harvard College. 35 Monis received a grant of land from 
the municipal corporation and acquired a home on a lot adjacent to 
that of the Marrett family. 36 Over the years, to supplement his salary 
from Harvard, Monis ran a small shop and served individuals and 
governmental offices as a Spanish translator and interpreter. In 1740 
the royal governor of Massachusetts nominated Monis for justice of the 
peace for Middlesex County, but he may never have actually held that 
judicial appointment. 37 

In 1723 Monis was granted an M. A. degree by Harvard College. Many 
authors assert that the degree was granted in 1720. 38 This seems highly 
unlikely, however, since there is no evidence of Monis's arrival in Boston 
until that year. Other more compelling reasons for the 1723 conferral 
date are carefully argued by Clifford K. Shipton in his Biographical 
Sketches of Those Who Attended Harvard College in the Classes 1722-1725. 39 
First, Monis's name appears to have been added "at the foot of the 
Class of 1720, the members of which took the MA in 1723" [emphasis 
added]. Second, the catalog for 1721 does not list Monis's name. Third, 
Monis's M.A. degree is not mentioned in newspaper articles or on the 
title pages of his books printed in 1722. His degree is listed, however, on 
publications after 1723. 40 

The chronology summarized above is important in terms of the 
assertions made by most scholars that Monis was the first Jew to obtain 
an academic degree at Harvard, the first Jew to obtain an academic 



David Mayer Gradwohl 75 



degree in North America, and the first Jew on the Harvard College 
faculty. Monis converted to Christianity on March 27, 1722; he was hired 
by Harvard College later that year; and he did not receive his honorary 
M.A. degree until 1723. Therefore it could, and I think should, be argued 
that Monis can not be credited with any of these "firsts." Neither, inci- 
dentally, can he be regarded as the first Jew to convert to Christianity 
in North America, although he is perhaps the best known of the early 
Jewish apostates. Samuel Sewall, for example, recorded in his diary 
that "Simon, the Jew" was baptized in Charlestowne by Rev. Bradstreet 
on September 17, 1702. 41 A Jew in South Carolina is also said to have 
converted to Christianity about the same time on the basis of Cotton 
Mather's writings. 42 There may have been others whose conversions 
were not recorded. 

Beyond these matters, however, Monis was certainly the first in- 
structor of Hebrew at Harvard College. As mentioned above, Hebrew 
was a required subject at Harvard and had been the teaching respon- 
sibility of the tutors. Whether Monis was actually a rabbi or not is 
less important than the fact that his credentials no doubt surpassed 
the skills of anyone else in Boston at that time. And there were many 
contemporary pretenders to that throne of knowledge. For example, 
Cotton Mather, who wore a skullcap in his study and frequently referred 
to himself as a rabbi, used Hebrew words and phrases. 43 Many local 
Christian clergymen prided themselves on their knowledge of Hebrew, 
but they almost uniformly acknowledged Monis' s greater proficiency in 
that subject. Reverend Colman, for example, described Monis not only 
as "a learned and pious Jew" but also as a "great Master and Critick in 
the Hebrew Tongue." 44 

Judah Monis taught Hebrew at Harvard College for thirty-eight 
years. Opinions vary concerning his adeptness as a teacher. The Harvard 
Corporation records for April 1723 note that the Overseers were "greatly 
satisfied with his assiduity and faithfulness in his instruction, ye 
surprising effects of them having been laid before the corporation." 45 
One writer flatly stated that "Monis was popular with his students." 46 
Another source proclaimed that Monis was considered "a fine Hebrew 
scholar" who "took unmeasured pains with a small class to perfect them 
in the language he loved, and took great pride in their successes." 47 
However, Monis has had many detractors. One modern scholar has 
stated that it was obvious that Monis "was not a successful teacher and 



76 Judah Morris's Puzzling Gravestone 



that his course was something less than captivating." 48 

Widely varying student evaluations should not come as a surprise 
to anyone who has ever taught (as I have) a required course in a subject 
students do not regard as popular. The behavior of some of Monis's 
students, however, seems excessive. They reportedly shunned his 
classroom, penned nasty annotations into their grammar books, broke 
into Monis's cellar, were constantly "bulraging" [bullyragging] their 
instructor, and threw bricks, sticks, and ashes at his classroom door. 49 In 
all fairness to Monis, Morison indicates that the teaching of Hebrew at 
Harvard in those days probably never was popular regardless of which 
instructor was assigned the task: "The [Harvard] Corporation soon had 
occasion to invite Mr. Monis to revise his teaching methods, which were 
'thought so tedious as to be discouraging,' but he had no better success 
than the tutors who preceded him, or the professors who followed, in 
making Hebrew interesting to the average undergraduate." 50 

Monis also achieved a first, at least for British North America, in 
publishing his Hebrew grammar textbook in 1735. The book was entitled 
Dickdook Leshon Gnebreet: A Grammar of the Hebrew Tongue, Being an Essay 
To Bring the Hebrew Grammar into English to Facilitate the Instruction of All 
Tliose Wlio are Desirous of Acquiring a Clear Idea of this Primitive Tongue by 
Their Own Studies. This text was welcomed by most students because it 
spared them the task of copying Monis's dictation into their notebooks. 
Still, some students despised his class and resented having to study 
Hebrew. Material evidence for this disgust includes one student's 
textbook in which the title page reading "Composed and accurately 
corrected by Judah Monis, M.A." was modified to read "Confuted and 
accurately corrupted by Judah Monis, M.(aker of) A.(sses)." 51 

In addition to Monis's published discourses and textbook, he 
wrote at least one manuscript that remained unpublished at the time 
of his death. The treatise was entitled Nomenclatura hebraica and is a 
dictionary of selected nouns in Hebrew and English. 52 Although Monis's 
contemporaries were impressed with the scholarship of this manuscript, 
modern writers are quite critical. Eisig Silberschlag minced no words 
in his evaluation, although he may have overlooked the lack of certain 
standardizations during the eighteenth century: "The vocalization is 
sloppy, shoddy and defective; even the spelling of English words leaves 
much to be desired; the translations into Hebrew are imprecise and often 
erroneous. Instances of defective vocalization are too numerous to cite 



David Mayer Gradwohl 77 



. . . The erudition, displayed in the Nomenclatura, is not of a high and 
immaculate character." 53 Another scholar described Monis's grammar 
textbook as "riddled with inaccuracies and inconsistencies." 54 Jacob 
Marcus was also doubtful of Monis's erudition, particularly in reference 
to the Nomenclatura: "Errors in this vocalized vocabulary make it clear 
that Monis was no meticulous scholar." 55 On the other hand, Marcus 
pointed out that Monis was familiar with scholarly Hebrew texts 
written in Europe and was probably a better grammarian than some 
of his contemporaries (including Stephen Sewall, Monis's successor at 
Harvard) wanted to admit. 56 Furthermore, Marcus conceded that "it may 
be, indeed, that Monis, through his knowledge of the medieval Jewish 
commentators, supplied a more accurate interpretation of the Bible than 
did his colleagues, who were dependent on Christologically-oriented 
interpreters." 57 In sum, if Monis were going up for tenure at an American 
college or university today, his scholarship and publications would be 
a subject of acrimonious debate perhaps not entirely unlike the ordeals 
faced by some professors today. 

On October 21, 1760, Abigail Marrett Monis died in Cambridge and 
was buried there. Her grave is marked by a beautiful and elaborately 
carved headstone (Fig. 4). Laurel Gabel, who is familiar with gravestones 
and carvers from this area, identifies this gravestone as produced by 
Charlestown's Lamson shop. 58 The arched tympanum bears floral 
designs and the representation of a human face with wings. Further 
ornamentations of the gravestone consist of floral side border panels 
and a basal border panel. The inscription reads: 

Here lyes Buried y e Body of 

Mrs. ABIGAIL MONIS, consort 

to Mr. JUDAH MONIS (Hebrew 

Instructer in Harvard College) 

Who Departed this Life 

Octor. y e 27 th , 1760, in y e 

60 th Year of Her Age. 

At the time of his wife's death, Judah Monis was seventy-seven years 
old. His years at Harvard had not been entirely enjoyable. 59 Shalom 
Goldman observed of Monis that he "never received the full recognition 
of his students or peers. Monis remained a poorly paid instructor, never 
gaining the rank of professor." 60 Being childless and without any family 



78 



Judah Morris's Puzzling Gravestone 





c lyes l\iirh;l y Body ol 

*|M l ? Al.UCrAlL^Kf0NlS, Coiilorr 

t o , M 1 ; J I TD.&B j\ lONIS: ( / lehrcw 

■ Inf?rn£icr in //ttrtKirct i ii/fr^c) 

Who n^3cirted. iLm Liffe-\ 



'» 



), y V. 52* y .. l .t y o - f tv y? 





Fig. 4. Abigail Monis, 1760, Northborough, Massachusetts. 



in the Boston area, Monis resigned from Harvard, and subsequently 
moved to Northborough in order to reside with Rev. lohn Martyn, 
who was married to Mary Marrett Martyn, Abigail's sister. 61 Monis's 
extensive library would have been a welcome resource for his brother-in- 
law and former Harvard associate. Monis was active in Northborough's 
First Parish Church, was voted a seat of honor in its meeting house, and 
donated a silver communion service to the congregation, ludah Monis 
died on April 25, 1764, and was interred in the burying ground of First 
Parish Church. 



David Mayer Gradwohl 79 



A Second Look at the Gravestone: Analysis and Interpretation of 
Symbolic, Ideational, Biographical, and Historical Factors 

The headstone marking the grave of Judah Monis is a handsomely 
carved slate monument measuring 48" in height above the ground, 32 
3 /4" in width, and 2 3 A" in thickness. Laurel Gabel supports Forbes's 
identification of the Monis headstone as an exceptional example of the 
work of the well-known carver William Park, a skilled Scottish stone 
worker who had come to the United States circa 1756. The slate is thought 
to have come from the Pin Hill Quarry at Harvard, Massachusetts, 
where the Park family carvers obtained their stone. 62 Forbes noted that 
Park employed specific designs recognized at that time to portray not 
only the "terrible fact of death" but also the promise of resurrection. 
Among the familiar attributes of William Park's gravestones carved 
between 1756 and 1788, Forbes noted (a) "an architectural quality 
which we might expect from a family of stonecutters who were builders 
as well," (b) carving in high relief as well as bas-relief, (c) deeply cut 
anthropomorphic and floral ornamentations, and (d) "a curious type 
of death symbol which suggests a bulldog." 63 All of these attributes are 
observed on the headstone of Judah Monis. 

So, from one perspective, we see that Monis' s gravestone, along 
with its context in the burying ground of First Parish Church at 
Northborough, is quite conventional. It is a material personification of an 
individual who was an accepted and integrated member of a community 
sharing ideological values and a commonly recognized repertoire of 
artistic and verbal symbols representing life and death. Forbes was 
quite cognizant of this fact as well as of the challenge to the carver of 
this headstone, given Monis's unusual life history. She wrote: "When 
William Park received the order to carve a stone for Judah Monis, it must 
have taxed his ingenuity to the utmost. A man of such an interesting 
history and important position required something both dignified and 
unique. Judah Monis had been a very unique person ever since the days 
when Cotton Mather had written of his conversion to Christianity, 'A 
Jew rarely comes over to us but he brings Treasure with him.'" 64 With 
these matters in mind, we can analyze the headstone in further detail 
and better appreciate William Park's integrated sculpting skill and 
intellectual ingenuity, regardless of whether the stonecarver was indeed 
conscious of the complexity of meaning of Monis's gravestone. 65 

In looking at Monis's headstone, one's attention is immediately 



80 



Judah Morris's Puzzling Gravestone 




Fig. 5. Tympanum of Judah Monis headstone. 



drawn to the carving in high relief of a human skull and crossed long 
bones (Fig. 5). This symbol of the aforementioned "terrible fact of death" 
literally jumps out from the stone. Stylistically, this projected artistic 
design is an example of what Forbes referred to as "bulldog"-like in 
appearance. As Ludwig has noted, skulls (along with coffins, picks, 
shovels, and hourglasses) represent the "triumph of death." For readers 
of our times, he adds that "for the Puritans these symbols held less dread 
than for us today because for them the passing away of the flesh was as 
much a part of life as birth and the renewal of life after the death of the 
body." 66 Even more than commemorating the dead, these death symbols 
are reminders to the living that they, too, are going to die, and hence 
they should try to lead exemplary moral lives. 67 Sprouting from the 
skull are three intertwined stems of wheat or a wheat-like plant. 68 Forbes 
interpreted this motif as the full fruition of grain "sown in corruption, 
and raised in incorruption" — i.e., a symbol of a sinful or vulnerable 
human life that was mature or "ripe"; that life has died but can live 
again in purity and piety. Ludwig interprets the combination of the 



David Mayer (iradwohl 



skull and the growing plant as a powerful "symbol of transformation" 
representing "death's giving way to new life." 69 The idea of death and 
resurrection is certainly strengthened by the Latin word RES UR GAM, 
meaning "I shall rise again," that appears directly above the plant motif 
at the top of the tympanum. 

On either side of the skull are large scrolls terminating in decorative 
disks. These scrolls (simulating the form of a split, curved pediment) 
extend up from a base suggestive of a corniced entablature with dentil 
molding. This decorative unit as a whole is very architectural in its form, 
echoing the curved pediments seen on some Georgian and neoclassical 
buildings. 70 As mentioned above, William Park came from a background 
of builders and stone masons, so it is not surprising that he employed 
architectural motifs often in his gravestone designs. But the symbolism 
certainly goes beyond this fact. Ludwig discussed "architectural 
symbolism" (such as arches, portals, columns, and passageways) on 
early New England gravestones as representing the Puritan conception 
of the journey from life to heaven or from death to the unknown. 71 
David Watters also stressed this point in saying that "the grave was the 
passageway between the earthly temple and the heavenly temple . . . 
Carvers adopted the basic themes of the tomb-temple relationship to 
a two-dimensional carving space, and some of the earliest stones may 
have been seen by Puritans as symbolic of 'living stones.'" 72 Even more 
specifically, following Watters' reasoning concerning entrance to heaven 
and resurrection, the architectural motifs on Monis's headstone may 
well refer to the tripartite Old Testament temple in which "only the High 
Priest was permitted to enter the Holy of Holies, so Puritans saw him as 
a foreshadowing of Christ who would lead mankind into heaven." 73 The 
fact that Monis converted to Christianity certainly suggests this inter- 
pretation. It may well be that the Puritan fellowship perceived Monis as 
a "priest" and that his conversion was a validation of their aspirations 
for the coming of the Millennium that stemmed back to the writings of 
the Apostle Paul. 74 

The visual references to priest and temple are echoed in the side 
border panels of Monis's headstone. At the top of each side arch border 
panel is a sculptured rosette functioning as a border finial (Fig. 6). The 
rosettes and border panels are edged with a decorative beading or rope- 
like design. Gently folded drapes with fringes and tassels are delicately 
carved on the side panels. Watters elucidates the probable meanings of 



82 



Judah Morris's Puzzling Gravestone 




Fig. 6. Detail of border of Judah Monis gravemarker. 



David Mayer Gradwohl 



83 



the drapes and ropes with tassels vis-a-vis the Old Testament temple 
and the idea of resurrection: "The veil separating the inner court from 
the Holy of Holies becomes a symbol for Christ's flesh which has to 
be rent before believers can enter heaven. . . . The tassels are literal 
representations of those commonly hung from the pulpit and the pall 
held over the coffin, but they are also symbolic of the veil of flesh 
opening into heaven." 75 

Inset at the base of both side panels are architectural embellishments, 
each consisting of three short vertical columns holding up a horizontal 
element with banded molding (Fig. 7). The function or symbolism of 
these motifs is not clear. They may simply serve as foundations or 
footings for the side border panels. Another possibility is that the carver 
intentionally designed these elements to represent raised ledger stones 
or tablestones as a symbol of Monis's ascribed clerical status. Rev. 
John Martyn's gravestone, for example, is the only raised ledger stone 
in the cemetery. Still another possibility is that these motifs represent 
communion tables along the lines described by Ludwig and Watters. 76 

In addition to the decorated disks and rosettes mentioned above, 
Monis's headstone has other stylized floral and geometric designs. 




!U%.v 



Fig. 7. Detail of lower border of Judah Monis gravemarker showing 
an architectural form (possibly representing a table-stone). 



Judah Monis's Puzzling Gravestone 



Scrolled plant-like motifs form a decorative border across the top of 
the tympanum. The background surface for designs at the top of the 
gravestone is textured with lines of small stipple marks. The border 
at the base of the gravestone consists of a central pinwheel-like disk 
and scrolled plant-like motifs against a stippled background, repeating 
elements on the upper border of the tympanum. Although similar 
motifs are frequently found on early New England gravestones, their 
connotations are less obvious than the other conventional artistic 
symbols previously discussed. Flowers and garlands are generally 
associated with ideas of the ephemeral life of humans and also the 
victory of eternal life. 77 But, as Ludwig observes, stylized rosettes and 
other such geometric motifs, typically part of an interlocking network of 
designs, were "used with some degree of consistency in New England, 
although in no case are the meanings literally spelled out." 78 

The Monis headstone bears the following inscription, reproduced 
here in its entirety and with all its idiosyncratic conventions: 



RESURGAM 
Here lies buried the Remains of RABBI 
IUDAH MONIS, M.A. late HEBREW 
Instructer at HARVARD College in 
Cambridge in which Office He continued 40 
years. He was by Birth and Religion a jew but 
embrac-d the Christian Faith & was publickly 
baptiz-d at Cambridge AD 1722 and 
departed this Life April 25, 1764, Aged 
81 years 2 months and 21 days 
A native branch of Jacob see! 
Which, once from off its olive brok, 
Regrafted, from the living tree Rom. XI. 17-24. 

Of the reviving sap partook 

From teeming Zion's fertile womb, Isai. LXVI. 8. 
As dewy drops in early morn, Psal. CX. 3. 

Or rising bodies from the tomb, Iohn V. 28, 29 

At once be Isr'els nation born! Isai. LXVI. 8. 



David Mayer Gradwohl 85 



This inscription has a number of conventions (perhaps customary for 
that time and place, or perhaps idiosyncrasies of the carver) that are 
ignored in most of the published transcriptions (Fig. 8). Monis's first 
name, for example, is carved with a capital "I," which substitutes for a 
capital "J"; the same can be seen in the citation of the gospel of John. This 
substitution is not particularly unusual for that time period, although the 
capital "J" is used in Jacob's name. Curiously enough, the initial letters in 
the words "Christian Faith" are capitalized, but the "j" in "jew" is not. 79 
Despite some corrected published versions, the words "publickly" and 
"brok" appear here as they were carved on the stone; likewise, there is a 
grammatical error in the first line of the biographical section and in the 
last line of the poem. The letter "e" is represented by a dot in the words 
"embrac-d" and "baptiz-d" and an apostrophe substitutes for the letter 
"a" in the word "Isr'els." 

The inscription can be divided into four units (Fig. 9). The first unit, 
which appears curved at the top of the tympanum, consists of the single 
Latin word "Resurgam," meaning "I shall rise again." This part of the 
gravestone's carved text appears in none of the published versions I 
have found prior to Gabel's printed transcription in 2002. It is perhaps 
worth noting that the tablet inscription for Monis, first instructor of 
Hebrew at Harvard, contains no words in Hebrew but rather a word in 
Latin. Thus, in addition to the important concept of resurrection, this one 
word in Latin highlights the significance to the Puritan world of Monis's 
conversion from Judaism to Christianity by emphasizing the movement 
from Old Testament to New Testament beliefs. 80 

The other three units of the inscription are carved in the rectangular 
space below the sculpture of the human skull and crossed bones. Only 
one of the earlier published versions makes any attempt to reproduce 
all three of these sections. 81 The second unit, consisting of nine lines, 
contains biographical information. Monis is identified as a rabbi (and 
apparently he served one or more congregations in that role although, 
as discussed above, he may never have been ordained or awarded 
that specific status in Judaism). He is further identified as a Hebrew 
"Instructer" [sic] at Harvard College for a period of forty years. In point 
of fact, Monis was on the Harvard staff for thirty-eight years, extending 
from his appointment in 1722 to his resignation in 1760. His public 
baptism and conversion to Christianity are acknowledged as well as his 
date of death and his presumed exact age at the time he died. 



86 



Judah Morris's Puzzling Gravestone 




CO II 



n 



JCH* III? 




Fig. 8. Detail of inscription of Judah Monis's gravemarker . 



The third and fourth units of the inscription consist of an eight-line 
poem or epitaph directly below the biographical section and, to the 
right, five citations to Biblical passages that inspired the poem. Verses 
in Romans, Isaiah, Psalms, and John are cited. This poem is full of 
allusions to Monis's Jewish background, his acceptance of Christianity, 
the promise of resurrection, and the vision of a messianic kingdom. The 
poem and Biblical citations echo and elucidate the word "Resurgam" 
at the top of the tympanum. Several of the published versions of this 
epitaph refer only to the poem and then comment that it hints at Monis's 



David Mayer Gradwohl 



87 



tJ 



tl 



9 



RESURGAM 



Here lies buried the Remains of RABBI 
IUDAHMONIS, MA. late HEBREW 
Instructer at HARVARD College in 
Cambridge in which Office He continued 40 
years. He was by Birth and Religion a jew but 
embrac'd the Christian Faith & was publickly 
baptiz.d at Cambridge AD 1722 and 
departed this Life April 25, 1764, Aged 
81 years 2 months and 21 days 



A native branch of Jacob see! 
Which, once from off its olive brok, 
Regrafted, from the living tree 
Of the reviving sap partook 
From teeming Zion's fertile womb, 
As dewy drops in early morn, 
Or rising bodies from the tomb, 
At once be Isr'els nation born! 



Rom. XI. 17-24. 

Isai. LXVI. 8. 

Psal. CX. 3. 
Iohn V. 28, 29 

Isai. LXVI. 8. 



If 



Fig. 9. Diagram showing the four units of the text 
carved on the gravemarker of Judah Monis. 



Judaic background. 82 Isaac Landman did not quote the poem but 
mentioned that the verse and its figurative allusions point to Monis' s 
Jewish origins. 83 Of course those facts are stated unambiguously in the 
biographical section of the inscription. Monis' s Jewish origins and the 
impact his conversion to Christianity had on his Puritan associates are 
repetitive themes that reverberate throughout the entire inscription. 

The poem, its Biblical allusions, and the potent graphic symbols 
provide the key to understanding the message on Judah Monis's 
headstone. In The Logic of Millennial Thought: Eighteenth-Century New 
England, James W. Davidson emphasizes the centrality of millennialism 
in Puritan religion as forcefully espoused and preached, for example, 
by Increase and Cotton Mather. 84 Millennialism is deeply rooted in 



Judah Monis's Puzzling Gravestone 



the biblical symbols and allusions on Monis's gravestone, especially 
in the passage from Romans. The millennial thread extending from 
Protestantism back to Catholicism and Judaism centers on concepts of 
the "chosen people," the messiah, and the manner in which a "Kingdom 
of God" might be established. 

The life and writings of the Apostle Paul are the crucial element 
here in understanding the growth of Christianity out of Judaism and 
the early development of millennial thought. 85 Saul of Tarsus in Cilicia 
was originally a member of the Pharisees, a religious faction of Jews 
who maintained the validity of oral law in addition to the Torah; they 
also believed in the resurrection of the dead and a life after death. 86 As a 
persecutor of Christians, Saul was sent to Damascus to apprehend what 
followers of Jesus he could find and bring them to trial in Jerusalem. 
Along the road, Saul had his celebrated epiphanic vision and was called 
(or converted) to Christianity. Subsequently, as the Apostle Paul, he 
became a proselytizer for Christianity. The fact that the early Christians 
had, in fact, been Jews, figured largely in the Puritans' straightforward 
desire to convert Jews and to venerate Judah Monis's conversion to 
Christianity. 

The questions regarding the identification of "chosen" people, the 
role of conversions, and the anticipated appearance of a messiah or 
messianic age, however, are more complex, as revealed in Paul's Epistle 
to the Romans and alluded to on the headstone of Judah Monis. 87 The 
problem of salvation and the second appearance of Christ is bound up, 
to a large degree, in whether Jews (as stated in the Old Testament) or 
Christians were actually "chosen" to spread the word of God and thus 
usher in the advent of the messianic age or millennial reign of Christ. 
Jews were not responding well to the missionary efforts of Paul and 
other followers of Jesus. Krister Stendahl explains what motivated 
Paul to write his Epistle to the Romans: "The glorious secret that was 
whispered into the ear of Paul the Apostle, the Jewish apostle to the 
Gentiles, was that God in his grace had changed his plans. Now it was 
the 'No' of the Jews, their non-acceptance of the Messiah, which opened 
up the possibility of the 'Yes' of the Gentiles. Particularly in Romans 11 
does Paul point out that ultimately when the full number of Gentiles 
have become God's people, then by jealousy (Rom. 11:11) the Jews will 
also be saved (11:15, 25-27). The central issue claiming Paul's attention 
is that of the inclusion both of Gentiles and Jews." 88 As E. P. Sanders 



David Maver Gradwohl 



notes: "Paul required faith in Christ not only of Gentiles but also of Jews. 
... In Romans 11 he uses the image of an olive tree. Many of the native 
branches had been lopped off. They can be grafted back only on the basis 
of faith." 89 This verbal imagery of the broken olive branch regrafted to 
the living tree is what we observe carved into stone in Judah Monis's 
epitaph. The metaphor, of course, refers to the fact that Judah Monis 
was born a Jew but converted to Christianity. Thus the poem further 
reinforces the biographical portion of the headstone's inscription: the 
conversion of Monis was, indeed, "good news." In the times of Paul 
as well as in the Puritan period, Jews were not exactly rushing to 
conversion. Hence we can understand Increase and Cotton Mather's 
sense of urgency in their proselytizing efforts and also their near rapture 
in the conversion of Judah Monis. To the Puritan community, reaching 
back to Paul's Epistle to the Romans, a life had been saved and they were 
just that much closer to attaining their promised millennial goal. 

Conclusions 

As discussed above, Judah Monis was not a man without accom- 
plishments. He was, indeed, the first instructor of Hebrew at Harvard 
and his Hebrew grammar was the first published in North America. On 
this basis, one writer labeled Monis as a "Colonial American Hebraist"; 90 
another as an "American scholar." 91 Many details of Monis's life, 
however, remain enigmatic. There are conflicting statements concerning 
his place of birth, the religious tradition of his parents, the places where 
he was educated, the titles which may or may not have been conferred 
upon him, the reasons and motivations for his conversion, and his skill 
and popularity as a teacher. Contrasting references to Monis's identity 
occurred not only during his lifetime, but have continued in the writings 
of subsequent scholars. Monis is referred to as a rabbi, a "former rabbi," 
a "converted rabbi," and a "Christian rabbi," and he is also designated 
a Jew, a "learned and pious Jew," a "Jewish scholar and Hebraicist/' 
a "convert from Judaism," a "converted Jew," a "Jewish Christian," a 
"Christianized Jew," a "Christian Jew," and a "terminal Jew." 9: 

Jewish scholars, in particular, seem deeply ambivalent about Judah 
Monis: they cannot afford to ignore him, but they realize the irony 
of discussing him within the context of American Jewish history. In 
The Colonial American Jew, for example, Jacob Marcus pointed out that 
Monis was a convert to Protestantism. Immediately following that 



90 Judah Monis's Puzzling Gravestone 



statement, Marcus proceeded to exclaim: "Morris was also the first Jew 
in North America to receive an academic degree — an honorary one in 
this instance — from an American college." 93 This statement presents 
problems not only in terms of the chronological events of Monis's life but 
also in the manner in which his personal identity is described. Similarly, 
Monis and his complex identities figure prominently in The Jews of 
Boston, a series of essays edited by Jonathan D. Sarna and Ellen Smith. 94 
In this book, Stephen J. Whitfield juggled the disparate information 
about Monis awkwardly: "It is fitting that the first noteworthy Jew to 
settle in Boston was not a merchant but an academic: Judah Monis, the 
author of a Hebrew grammar (1735) and the recipient of a Harvard M.A. 
degree — the first college degree a Jew received in the American colonies. 
But Boston's first consequential Jew was also a terminal Jew, a convert, 
though Monis might not have been a Christian by choice. Baptism was 
a condition of employment at Harvard . . ." 95 But if Monis "terminated" 
his Judaism prior to his receiving the M.A. degree, the assertion that 
he was the first Jew to receive a college degree in the American colonies 
falls flat. 

An understanding of the socio-cultural and religious context of 
colonial America helps identify the conflicting and enigmatic aspects 
of Judah Monis's identity and explain how he has been perceived by 
others. As Arthur Hertzberg wrote, "the Puritans of New England were 
obsessed by the Jewish Bible, but they were not hospitable to Jews, or to 
Judaism." 96 Jews were seen as subjects to be converted to Christianity 
by leading clergymen such as Increase Mather and Cotton Mather. They 
reveled in the occasion of Monis's baptism and conversion. According 
to Hertzberg, "Christianity thus stood confirmed in Boston, out of the 
mouth of a Jew who even sometimes claimed to have been a rabbi. What 
a joy this was for [Cotton] Mather. . . . Mather left College Hall that day 
in the sure and certain faith that the Second Coming was near." 97 

Given these conflicting perceptions of identity and historical facts, we 
can better comprehend the portrayal of Monis in the recently published 
book on the history of Boston's Jews: "Monis's life presents one example 
— if an extreme example — of how a Jewish individual made a place for 
himself in Boston history. Without the support of Jewish institutions, a 
Jewish community, or even other Jewish individuals, Monis entered the 
life of Cambridge as a Christian. He consciously chose to do so. Having 
voluntarily left a mature Jewish community in New York City, Monis 



David Mayer Gradwohl 91 



came to Cambridge to teach the Hebrew tongue as a Christian. He 
seems never to have looked back." 98 The incongruity is that the author 
of this passage acknowledges that Monis was a Christian during his 
employment at Harvard and yet includes him in the historical review of 
the Jews of colonial Boston. 

Even in death (which occurred in 1764), Monis remains somewhat 
of a paradox. The epitaph on Monis' s headstone in the graveyard of 
Northborough's First Parish Church proclaims that he "was by Birth 
and Religion a jew." However, Jewish burials did not occur, and were 
apparentlv not allowed, in Massachusetts until the 1840s." Jews who 
resided in colonial Boston, for example, were transported to final resting 
places in Newport, Rhode Island, or one of Shearith Israel Synagogue's 
early cemeteries in New York City. Thus not only the imagery 
and language but even the location of Judah Monis' s gravestone is 
expressive of his enigmatic and conflicted Judeo/ Christian identity. The 
magnificently carved headstone in the burying ground of First Parish 
Church in Northborough marks the grave of a person important not only 
in the history of that community but also in the history of Cambridge, 
Boston, and the larger realm of colonial America. The integrated imagery 
on this gravestone, manifested in artistic designs and verbal symbols in 
the tablet inscription, however, reflect a complex person whose life still 
challenges our understanding today. 



92 Judah Morris's Puzzling Gravestone 



NOTES 

I would like to acknowledge the support of a Touro National Heritage Trust 
Fellowship (administered through the John Carter Brown Library at Brown 
University in Providence, RI) during the fall of 1997. As an ancillary to my main 
research project at Newport, RI, I ran across references to Judah Monis and the 
epitaph on his gravestone. During the spring of 1998, 1 traveled to Northborough, 
Massachusetts, to visit the First Parish Church burying ground and document 
Monis's gravestone. My wife, Hanna Rosenberg Gradwohl, assisted me with both 
the archival research and field recording of Monis's gravestone. I am indebted 
to Laurel Gabel not only for sharing her extensive knowledge of colonial New 
England gravestones, but also for specific information regarding Judah Monis's 
gravestone and its carver, William Park; in addition, she brought the gravestone 
of Abigail Marrett Monis to my attention. I also thank the following individuals 
for their help: Rabbi Judith Bluestein, Rev. Kent Organ, Nancy Osborn Johnsen, 
Jane G. Nash, Justin M. Nash, Curtis Nepstad-Thornberry, Rev. Richelle Russell 
(minister of Northborough's First Parish Church), and Leroy Wolins. I also 
appreciate the assistance of personnel at the American Jewish Historical Society 
(Waltham, MA), the John Carter Brown Library and Rhode Island Historical 
Society (Providence, RI), and the Redwood Library (Newport, RI). Aaron 
Greiner kindly prepared Figure 8. I thank the American Antiquarian Society, 
Worcester, Massachusetts, for making available the images of the gravestones 
of Judah Monis and Abigail Monis from the Daniel and Jessie Lie Farber 
Collection of Gravestone Photographs. Photographs for Figures 1 and 2 were 
taken by the author. Earlier versions of this paper were presented at the annual 
meeting of the American Culture Association in San Diego, California, on April 
1, 1999, and at the conference of the National Association for Ethnic Studies in 
Boston, Massachusetts, on March 23, 2000. Lastly, I gratefully acknowledge the 
assistance of Gary Collison and two anonymous reviewers as I prepared the final 
revision of this essay. 

1 The present building is a smaller replica of a church that was constructed in 
1808 and destroyed by fire in 1945. That structure, in turn, replaced the original 
church built during colonial times. 

2 Harriette Merrifield Forbes, Gravestones of Early Neio England and the Men 
Who Made Them, 1653-1800 (1927; Barre, VT: Barre Granite Association, 1989); 
David D. Hall, "The Gravestone Image as a Puritan Cultural Code," in Puritan 
Gravestone Art— The Dublin Seminar for Nezo England Folklife, Annual Proceedings 
1976, ed. Peter Benes (Boston, MA: Boston University, 1977), 23-32; Allan 
Ludwig, Graven Images: New England Stonecarving and Its Symbols, 1650-1815 
(1966; Hanover, NH: Wesleyan University Press, 1999); David H. Watters, "A 
Priest to the Temple," in Puritan Gravestone Art II— The Dublin Seminar for New 
England Folklife, Annual Proceedings 1978, ed. Peter Benes (Boston, MA: Boston 
University), 25-36. 

3 Josiah Coleman Kent, Northborough History (Newton, MA: Garden City Press, 
1921), 286. 

4 Lee M. Friedman, "Judah Monis, First Instructor at Harvard University," 



David Maver Gradwohl 93 



Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society 22 (1914): 19; Kent, 
Northborough Histon/, 288; Milton M. Klein, "A Jew at Harvard in the 18th 
Century," Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society 97 (1985): 144; 
George Foot Moore, "Judah Monis," Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society 52 (1919): 300-301; Eisig Silberschlag, "Judah Monis in Light of an 
Unpublished Manuscript," Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish 
Research 46-47 (1980): 496; Ellen Smith, "Strangers and Sojourners: The Jews of 
Colonial Boston," in The Jews of Boston: Essays on the Occasion of the Centenary 
(1895-1995) of the Combined Jewish Philanthropies of Greater Boston, ed. Jonathan 
D. Sarna and Ellen Smith (Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press, 1995), 
34. 

5 Subsequently, however, a complete and accurate transcription has been 
published along with some description of the mortuary symbolism represented 
on the gravestone of Judah Monis; see: Laurel K. Gabel, "'By this you see we are 
but dust': The Gravestone Art and Epitaphs of our Ancestors," in Art of Family: 
Genealogical Artifacts in New England, ed. D. Brenton Simons and Peter Benes 
(Boston, MA: New England Genealogical Society, 2002), 150-175. 

6 Forbes, Gravestones of Early New England, 113. 

7 Ludwig, Graven Images, 5. 

s Watters, "A Priest to the Temple," 25-26. 

9 Forbes, Gravestones of Early New England, 74 and Figure 95. 

10 Clifford K. Shipton, Biographical Sketches ofTliose Who Attended Harvard 
College in the Classes 1722-1725, 7 (1945): 639, quoting the New Hampshire 
Gazette, May 4, 1764; Klein, A Jew at Harvard, 139; Kent, Northborough History, 
286; Jacob R. Marcus, The Colonial American Jew, 1492-1776 (Detroit, MI: Wayne 
State University Press, 1970): 1096; Samuel Eliot Morison, TJiree Centuries of 
Harvard, 1636-1936 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1963), 57; 
William H. Mulligan, Jr., Northborough: A Town and Its People (Northborough, 
MA: Northborough American Revolution Bicentennial Commission, 1982), 
224; Cecil Roth and Geoffrey Wigoder, "Judah Monis," TJte New Standard Jewish 
Encyclopedia (Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1970): 1363. 

11 George Alexander Kohut, "Judah Monis, M.A., the First Instructor at 
Harvard University (1683-1764)," Tlie American Journal of Semitic Languages 
and Literatures 14:4 (1898): 219, quoting Benjamin Peirce; Shalom Goldman, 
"Biblical Hebrew in Colonial America: The Case of Dartmouth," in Hebrew and 
the Bible in America: The First Two Centuries, ed. Shalom Goldman (Hanover, 
NH: University Press of New England, 1993): 201; Arthur Hertzberg, "The New 
England Puritans and the Jews," in Hebrew and the Bible in America: The First 
Two Centuries, ed. Shalom Goldman (Hanover, NH: University Press of New 
England, 1993): 108. 

12 Moore, "Judah Monis," 287. 

13 Several authors have commented that the family name Monis is unusual if 
not unique among Jews. See, for example, Moore, "Judah Monis," 286-287; and 
Kohut, "Judah Monis, M.A.," 217. This name, however, is not an uncommon 



94 Judah Morris's Puzzling Gravestone 



Iberian family name in its Spanish spelling (Monis) or its Portuguese spelling 
(Moniz). Current telephone directories, for example, list more than 150 Moniz 
residences and one Monis in Providence, RI; Boston has 3 listings for Monis 
and 25 for Moniz; and there are 140 Moniz listings and 1 Monis in Fall River, 
MA. Perhaps few or none of these contemporary families identify as Jews. 
Given the historical factor of forced conversions in Iberia during the fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries, however, it is not impossible that some of these 
contemporary families may have had Jewish ancestors in pre-Inquisition Iberia. 

14 Smith, "Strangers and Sojourners," 131; Marcus, The Colonial American Jew, 
1096; Moore, "Judah Monis," 287. 

15 Shipton, Biographical Sketches, 639; Klein, "A Jew at Harvard," 139. 

16 Moore, "Judah Monis," 287; Leah Borenstein, "The Jewish Religious 
Leadership in the Muslim East," Encyclopedia Judaica 13 (1972): 1450-1451. 

17 Marcus, Vie Colonial American Jew, 1096. See also Klein, "A Jew at Harvard," 
139. 

18 Moore, "Judah Monis," 288-289. 

19 Shipton, Biographical Sketches, 639; Klein, "A Jew at Harvard," 139; Louis 
Meyer, The First Jewish Christian in North America— Judah Monis (Hopkinton, 
Iowa, circa 1890): 3; Smith, "Strangers and Sojourners," 31; Dagobert D. Runes, 
"Judah Monis," in Concise Dictionary of Judaism (New York, NY: Philosophical 
Library, Inc., 1969): 171. 

20 Shipton, Biographical Sketches, 639; Klein, "A Jew at Harvard," 139-140. 

21 Moore, "Judah Monis," 290; Friedman, "Judah Monis, First Instructor," 2. 

22 The purposes and rationales for teaching Hebrew are elucidated in 
Goldman, ed., Hebrew and Tlie Bible. 

23 Morison, Three Centuries of Harvard, 57. 

24 Shipton, Biographical Sketches, 643; Moore, "Judah Monis," 299-300; 
Friedman, "Judah Monis, First Instructor," 15-16. 

25 Marcus, The Colonial American Jew, 1097. 

26 Shipton, Biographical Sketches, 641; Hertzberg, "The New England Puritans," 
108-109; James West Davidson, Tlie Logic of Millennial Tliought: Eighteenth- 
Century New England (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1977); Michael 
G. Hall, The Last American Puritan: Tlie Life of Increase Mather, 1639-1723 
(Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1988). 

27 Marcus, The Colonial American Jew, 1099. 

28 Kohut, "Judah Monis, M.A.," 218-219; Marcus, The Colonial American Jew, 
1097-99; Moore, "Judah Monis," 301; Smith, "Strangers and Sojourners," 
34; Steven J. Whitfield, "The Smart Set: An Assessment of Jewish Culture," 
in Jonathan D. Sarna and Ellen Smith, eds., Tlie Jews of Boston: Essays on the 
Occasion of the Centenary (1895-1995) of the Combined Jewish Philanthropies of 
Greater Boston (Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press, 1995), 308. 



David Mayer Gradwohl 95 



29 Davidson, T)\e Logic of Millennial Tlwught; M. Hall, Tlie Last American Puritan. 

30 Shipton, Biographical Sketches, 641; Marcus, The Colonial American Jew, 1098; 
Frederick T. Haneman, "Judah Mortis," Tlie Jewish Encyclopedia 8 (1904): 657; 
Isaac Landman, "Judah Monis," T/?e' Universal Jewish Encyclopedia 7 (1969): 622. 

31 Kohut, "Judah Monis, M.A," 218. 

32 Moore, "Judah Monis," 294. 

33 Shipton, Biographical Sketches, 642. 

34 Also spelled Marret. 

35 Mulligan, Northborough, 225. 

36 Klein, "A Jew at Harvard," 142. 

37 Shipton, Biographical Sketches, 643; Friedman, "Judah Mortis, First Instructor,' 
15-16; Moore, "Judah Mortis," 299-300. 

38 Moore, "Judah Mortis," 290; Leon Hiihner, "Jews in Connection with 
the Colleges of the Thirteen Original States Prior to 1800," Publications of the 
American Jewish Historical Society 19 (1910):109; Landman, "Judah Mortis," 622; 
Kent, Northborough History, 286; Friedman, "Judah Monis, First Instructor," 2. 

39 Shipton, Biographical Sketches, 642 and footnote 12. 

40 Most scholars on this subject concur with the 1723 date for Monis's M.A. 
degree. See Klein, "A Jew at Harvard," 142; Isadore S. Meyer, "Judah Monis," 
Encyclopedia Judaica 12 (1972): 257; Silberschlag, "Judah Mortis in Light," 495; 
Marcus, Tlie Colonial American Jew, 1099; Mulligan, Northborough, 224. 

41 Moore, "Judah Monis," 302; Smith, "Strangers and Sojourners," 32. 

42 Hertzberg, "The New England Puritans," 107. 

43 Ibid., 105. 

44 Klein, "A Jew at Harvard," 135. 

45 Friedman, "Judah Mortis, First Instructor," 7. 

46 Hiihner, "Jews in Connection with the Colleges," 109. 

47 Kent, Northborough History, 286. 

48 Marcus, The Colonial American Jew, 1099. 

49 Shipton, Biographical Sketches, 643. 

50 Morison, Tliree Centuries of Harvard, 58. 

51 Marcus, The Colonial American Jew, 1099. 

52 Moore, "Judah Mortis," 310; Silberschlag, "Judah Mortis in Light," 498-499. 

53 Silberschlag, "Judah Mortis in Light," 499-500. 

54 Goldman, "Biblical Hebrew in Colonial America," 202. 



96 Judah Morris's Puzzling Gravestone 



55 Marcus, Tlte Colonial American Jew, 1102. 

56 Ibid., 1101-1103. Steven Sewall had been a student of Judah Monis and 
was not laudatory of his former instructor's teaching skills. In 1764, Sewall 
was appointed the Hancock Professor of Hebrew, Harvard's first endowed 
chair of Hebrew. See Thomas J. Siegel, "Professor Stephen Sewall and the 
Transformation of Hebrew at Harvard," in Goldman, ed., Hebrew and the Bible, 
233. 

57 Marcus, The Colonial American Jew, 1103. 

58 Laurel Gabel, personal communication, April 5, 1999. 

59 Marcus, The Colonial American Jew, 1100. 

60 Shalom Goldman, "Introduction," in Goldman, ed., Hebrew and the Bible: xxi. 

61 Kent, Northborongh History, 287; Mulligan, Northborongh, 225. 

62 Laurel Gabel, personal communication, March 16, 1999; see also Gabel, " 'By 
this you see," 162. 

63 Forbes, Gravestones of Early New England, 72-73. 
h4 Ibid., 74. 

65 Ludwig, Graven Images, 4-6. 
bb Ibid., 77. 

67 Hall, Vie Last American Puritan, 29. 

68 To this author, the three stems of the plant motif are suggestive of at least a 
covert representation of the Trinity; but that association may not have been a 
conscious symbol in the mind of William Park, his patrons, or other people in 
Colonial Northborough. 

69 Ludwig, Graven Images, 77. 

70 Laurel Gabel observes that William Park came from Scotland and further 
notes that the strong architectural details in his carvings are similar to those in 
Scotland during that period (personal communication, March 16, 1999). 

71 Ludwig, Graven Images, 139. 

72 Watters, "A Priest to the Temple," 26. 

73 Ibid., 25. 

74 Davidson, Tlie Logic of Millennial Thought ; E.P. Sanders, Paul (Oxford, 
England: Oxford University Press, 1991); Krister Stendahl, Paul Among Jews and 
Gentiles (Philadelphia, PA: Fortress Press, 1976). 

75 Watters, "A Priest to the Temple," 25, 35. 
7,1 Ibid., 35; Ludwig, Graven Images, 176. 

77 Ibid., 142-155. 

78 Ibid., 232. 



David Mayer Gradwohl 97 



79 While I find this distinction pejorative, it may only reflect the somewhat 
capricious attitude toward capitalization exhibited by gravestone carvers 
during the colonial period. 

80 1 thank an anonymous reviewer for suggesting this specific paradigm. 

81 Kent, Northborough History, 288. 

82 Silberschlag, "Judah Monis in Light," 496; Smith, "Strangers and 
Sojourners," 34. 

83 Landman, "Judah Monis," 622. 

84 Davidson, Tlie Logic of Millennial TJiought; M. Hall, Tlte Last American Puritan. 

85 Sanders, Paul; Stendahl, Paul Among Jews and Gentiles. 

86 David Flusser, "Paul of Tarsus," Encyclopaedia Judaica 13 (1972): 190-192; 
Menahem Mansoor, "Pharisees," Encyclopaedia Judaica 13 (1972): 363-366. 

87 Robert W. Wall, "Introduction to Epistolary Literature," Tlte Neiv Interpreter's 
Bible (Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 2002); 10: 369-375; N. T. Wright, "The 
Letter to the Romans: Introduction, Commentary and Reflections," The New 
Interpreter's Bible 10: 395-699. 

88 Stendahl, Paul Among Jews and Gentiles, 28. 

89 Sanders, Paul, 117. 

90 1.S. Meyer, "Judah Monis," 256. 

91 Haneman, "Judah Monis," 657. 

92 Klein, "A Jew at Harvard," 135; Smith, "Strangers and Sojourners," 34; Rev. 
Robert Wodrow quoted in Klein, "A Jew at Harvard," 137; Ibid., 135; Smith, 
"Strangers and Sojourners," 30; Kohut, "Judah Monis, M.A.," 217; Smith, 
"Strangers and Sojourners," 34; L. Meyer, Tlie First Jewish Christian, 3; Smith, 
"Strangers and Sojourners," 34; Kent, Northborough Histon/, 286; Whitfield, "The 
Smart Set," 308. 

93 Marcus, Tlte Colonial American Jew, 1096. 

94 Sarna and Smith, Tlie Jews of Boston. 

95 Whitfield, "The Smart Set," 308. 

96 Hertzberg, "The New England Puritans," 105. 

97 Ibid. ,109. 

98 Smith, "Strangers and Sojourners," 34. 

99 Ellen Smith, "Israelites in Boston, 1840-1880," in Tlte Jews of Boston, 53-54; 
American Jewish Historical Society, On Common Ground: Tlte Boston Jewish 
Experience 1649-1980 (Waltham, MA: American Jewish Historical Society, 
1981): 15. 



98 



In the Bronx with Melville 




• 




HP 

Ji 

si 



Belmont mausoleum, a replica of the 

Chapel of Saint Hubert at Chateau Amboise, France. 

Courtesy, Woodlawn Cemetery, Bronx, NY. 



99 



In the Bronx with Melville 

Henry Hughes 



I'm trying to stay alive, jogging 

my heart into an island of smooth industry, 

paving lumpy streets, squaring sagging doorways 

with the bright brick of muscle. Something like the Bronx, 

a running race over those strip-car shoulders 

and burned-out projects on the way to Yankee Stadium 

and the sooty zoo. 

But it's a fine morning 

along Bedford's dewy ball fields 

with the African elite, the muscled Latinos and smooth women 

in sports bras and tights. And after all those inspiring rear miles 

I turn the corner and keep going, down railrattled Jerome 

up to Woodlawn Cemetery 

where the mausoleums outsize the banks — 

Woolworth's Egyptian tomb, Zeigler's Parthenon, 

Belmont's Chapel of St. Hubert—ensuring time's stranger 

that sweating awe of Wow, he must've been something. 

Faith darts across a path 

and in the cool oak groves to the east, lichen prints 

the dress of a weeping girl in worn granite. 

Her bare legs tease the beach, her delicate hand holds a book 

almost finished. Oh, sweet reader, all the love in the world 

won't keep us young or famous, though sadness 

sings softly for our loss, I think, lying 

before the blank scroll of Melville's headstone 

in the shelled calm he cannot hear. 

But I'm just tired enough to talk, to tell him the meaningless 

all meaning of a marathon 

run again and again against the gravity 

of time and money, of family and a good name. Manuscripts 

roll offshore, salt dries on my face, 

and there's the bright breach in an open sea, a glistening paperback 

pulled from a sports bag, 

a notebook and a pen. Now, Melville, I say — 

stretching across his Elizabeth — 

Let's see where you've been. 



100 



Museum in the Garden 




Fig. 1. Strolling through the garden cemetery. 

View from Mount Auburn, engraving by James Smillie, 1847. 
Courtesy, Mount Auburn Cemetery. 



Iiil 



Museum in the Garden: 

Mount Auburn Cemetery and 

American Sculpture, 1840-1860 

Elise Madeleine Ciregna 



In the four quarters of the globe, who . . . 
looks at an American picture or statue? 



— Reverend Sydney Smith 
Tlie Edinburgh Review, 1820 



Colonial Americans found little time for pursuits other than the 
immediate concerns of everyday life. By the early nineteenth century, 
critiques from abroad, such as the Reverend Sydney Smith's oft- 
quoted, famously withering comment, highlighted what had become 
a matter of national urgency for prominent intellectuals across 
America: the development of a distinct artistic culture. 1 Clearly, the 
most underdeveloped American art form was academic sculpture, or 
work produced by formally trained artists. In 1814, the Boston Spectator 
lamented: "It is probably a fact, and not one very flattering to us as a 
refined people, that not a single attempt has ever been made, in this 
country, to give to marble the 'human form divine.'" 2 Already, a number 
of American painters working from European academic traditions had 
emerged during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, artists 
such as John Singleton Copley, Benjamin West, John Trumbull, Gilbert 
Stuart and Washington Allston. These painters had all left America (some 
permanently, like Copley and West) to take advantage of opportunities 
to study abroad with trained European artists, furthering the view that 
America could not sustain artistic endeavor. In America, chiseled or 
carved work was still bound by earlier folk and craft traditions. Largely 
produced by anonymous native woodcarvers and stonecutters, it was 
utilitarian in nature — ship figureheads, shop signs, marble mantelpieces, 
and gravestones. When American academic sculpture finally began to 
appear on these shores, one of the first places it was prominent was at a 
new institution: the garden cemetery (Fig. 1). 



1 02 Museum in the Garden 



This article considers garden cemeteries not only as America's earliest 
public repositories of academic sculpture but also as a crucial catalyst for 
the development of academic sculpture in America. The study focuses 
on Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts, America's 
first rural, or garden, cemetery, founded in 1831. Mount Alburn not only 
provided the inspiration for the movement that helped to create scores of 
garden cemeteries throughout the country, but it also provided the model 
for how it introduced the American public — in this case, the largely 
white, upper and middle class, Anglo-Saxon, Protestant segment of the 
population that had the time and interest to pursue cultural activities — 
to viewing and appreciating sculpture produced by America's first 
professionally trained American artists. Mount Auburn's founders and 
lot owners, among the earliest American patrons of an emerging school 
of American sculpture, helped to advance the careers of numerous 
artists. In an age before public park systems and public art museums, 
sculptural works placed in cemeteries provided the American public 
with access to works by trained sculptors. Previous generations were 
familiar only with gravestones carved by little known or anonymous 
craftsmen and placed in graveyards that had little aesthetic appeal. 
Garden cemeteries brought a new awareness and appreciation of artistic 
accomplishment. As one art historian has noted, "marmoreal," or marble, 
works at Mount Auburn transformed the cemetery into "an out-of-door 
sculpture museum and botanical park given special meaning by the vast 
and distinguished company underground." The same writer stated, "It 
may be taken for granted that almost all of the patrons of sculptors drew 
a large part of whatever understanding and familiarity they had with 
the art of sculpture from the . . . exhibits in the cemetery." 3 The public's 
enthusiasm for visiting Mount Auburn invested that cemetery with the 
status of a museum and helped to introduce a taste for sculpture long 
before the founding of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston in 1870. 

The garden cemetery movement in America has long been the subject 
of scholarship by historians of landscape, urban planning, public health, 
society, and culture. Mount Auburn Cemetery has itself been the focus of 
much scholarship, most importantly by historian Blanche Linden- Ward, 
whose 1989 book entitled Silent City on a Hill: Landscapes of Memory and 
Boston's Mount Auburn Cemetery is the only comprehensive social and 
cultural history of that cemetery. Other scholars such as David Charles 



Elise Madeleine Ciregna 103 



Sloane and Barbara Rotundo have also dealt with Mount Auburn and the 
nineteenth-century rural cemetery movement. But although connections 
between the nascent field of American academic sculpture and cemeteries 
have occasionally been noted in the literature, scholars have largely 
overlooked Mount Auburn's specific contribution to the development of 
an American school of sculpture. One notable exception is art historian 
Frederic A. Sharf, whose 1961 article entitled "The Garden Cemetery 
and American Sculpture: Mount Auburn" also argued that Mount 
Auburn acted as a catalyst for sculpture commissions. 4 Sharf, however, 
felt that the importance given to American "expatriate" sculptors had 
overshadowed the accomplishments of those who remained in this 
country and limited his discussion to the latter, consequently ignoring 
what I feel is the much larger and more convincing view of Mount 
Auburn's far-reaching influence on American sculpture. Despite 
Sharf s narrow focus, his art historical focus on Mount Auburn is a 
refreshing exception to the scholarship on American sculpture, which 
in general focuses on later sculptors who found their greatest fame in 
the latter part of the nineteenth century and beyond. 5 A recent small 
but perceptible resurgence of interest in the earlier period of American 
sculpture — often referred to as "Neoclassical" for the classically-derived 
representations and characteristic use of white marble — has produced 
several dissertations and works on topics closely related to my research, 
although even in these works the role of the American cemetery receives 
little or no attention. 6 

A related difficulty with studying nineteenth-century cemetery 
sculpture is the lack of archival records that deal specifically with 
the sculptural works themselves. While historic cemeteries may keep 
accurate records of prominent personages buried within their boundaries, 
the sculptor or stone cutter who executed the original monument is often 
not recorded as part of routine lot records. Any paper trail connecting 
the lot owner or patron to the sculptor or carver rarely survives, unless 
either the patron or the sculptor was so celebrated that his (or her) papers 
were preserved in an archive. Retrieving this information, if an original 
monument is still extant (not always the case), involves inspecting 
the stone or bronze for a signature, searching for documentation, and 
possibly researching the artist involved. For obvious reasons, such a 
labor-intensive undertaking is never high on a cemetery's priority list 



104 Museum in the Garden 



that includes the more pressing issues of maintenance and preservation. 
Comprehensive inventories of American sculpture such as the one at the 
Smithsonian Institution Research Information System (SIRIS) also tend 
to be incomplete, especially for cemetery works, since the inventories are 
compiled mostly from museum and art historical sources. 

If historians have seldom dealt with sculpture specifically, they 
nevertheless have often considered Mount Auburn Cemetery an institu- 
tion that provided its public with the same cultural attributes one might 
associate with visiting a museum. Historian Stanley French, in an article 
published in 1974, first termed Mount Auburn a "cultural institution" 
and even alluded to the Reverend Smith's comments to bolster his 
argument that the rural, or garden, cemetery movement helped to 
prevent America from being considered a "cultural wasteland." 7 
French's article, however, concentrated on attitudes towards death, 
burial, and mourning practices. It had little to do with art with a capital 
"A," that is, the fine arts of painting and sculpture. One of the first places 
Americans would begin to view and appreciate the fine arts would be in 
the garden cemetery, with Mount Auburn in the vanguard. 

The reasons for sculpture's relatively late arrival in America are 
complex and still contested, but one major factor was the dearth 
of training and study opportunities in America. Woodcarvers and 
stonecutters often followed templates, or pre-arranged designs, in 
the wood or stone they carved, producing abstracted or repetitive 
ornamental designs. Rarely were they required to produce original or 
figural work, except in the case of ship figureheads, virtually the only 
call for carved figures. Several artisans influenced by the works of 
famous European sculptors and imported engravings — among them the 
master ship figurehead woodcarver William Rush and the stonecutter 
John Frazee — attempted the transition to artist in the early nineteenth 
century with little or no formal training but found only limited success. 8 

A critical deficit that retarded the early development of sculpture 
in America was the lack of exposure to classical statuary. While some 
European sculptors enjoyed modest success with commissions from 
the American government during the eighteenth and early nineteenth 
centuries — the most notable being the Frenchman Jean-Antoine 
Houdon and his full-length statue of George Washington (a commission 
suggested by Thomas Jefferson) — academic sculpture was known 



Elise Madeleine Ciregna 105 



almost exclusively only to wealthy Americans who had taken the 
Grand Tour and visited the great art collections of Europe. By the early 
nineteenth century, limited collections of plaster casts of antique busts 
and sculptures were owned by private cultural institutions such as the 
Boston Athenaeum and the American Academy of Fine Arts in New 
York, but there were few possibilities for the public at large to view 
statues or paintings. Academic art, or art produced by professionally 
trained artists, in general remained unknown to the large majority of the 
populace before the mid-nineteenth century. 

An anecdote related by Frances "Fanny" Trollope, the indefatigable 
English tourist and critic of America in the 1820s and 1830s, provides 
a telling insight about the American lack of experience with sculpture 
during this period. At the "Antique Statue Gallery" (an exhibit of 
plaster casts of antique statues) at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine 
Arts in 1830, Trollope was initially annoyed by the policy of segregating 
male and female viewers, who were sent in separately. Upon gaining 
admittance to the gallery, Trollope was not encouraged by what she saw. 
Confronted with the casts of nudes, several of which had been defaced 
with lewd graffiti by (presumably male) visitors, she later declared: "Till 
America has reached the degree of refinement which permits of [viewing 
sculpture appropriately], the antique casts should not be exhibited . . . 
at all. I never felt my delicacy shocked at the Louvre." 9 Clearly, she 
believed Americans in general lacked the ability to view nude statues 
with any degree of sophistication, at least compared to the more 
"refined" Europeans. 

American garden cemeteries would play a crucial role in helping the 
first generations of native sculptors develop successful careers. The first 
objective for an aspiring sculptor consisted of obtaining the skill and 
experience that would attract both patrons and commissions. Horatio 
Greenough, often called America's first sculptor, helped to set the course 
of American sculpture in 1825 when he became the first American to 
seek training in Italy with Europe's leading masters of sculpture. Well- 
educated and articulate, Greenough was highly admired for this bold 
move. The American press helped to ensure his success by reporting 
on his projects and commissions and by constant praise for his high- 
quality work, considered in America as rivaling the work of the best 
contemporary European artists. In the decades that followed, aspiring 



106 Museum in the Garden 



American sculptors imitated Greenough's example, including Thomas 
Crawford, Randolph Rogers, Richard Saltonstall Greenough (Horatio's 
brother), Thomas Ball, William Wetmore Story, Harriet Hosmer, and 
Edmonia Lewis, all of whom eventually gained commissions for 
placement at Mount Auburn Cemetery. 

An aspiring sculptor with the means to travel abroad usually 
chose Italy for his training. The superb art collections of ancient Greek, 
Roman and Renaissance sculpture, the many funerary monuments 
and memorials to the celebrated and the wealthy, and the sculpture 
that decorated public and private settings throughout Italy provided 
unlimited opportunities for study. The great European masters of 
sculpture, including the Italian Lorenzo Bartolini in Florence and the 
Danish Bertel Thorwaldsen in Rome, were settled permanently in 
Italy and accepted promising students into their workshops. Horatio 
Greenough studied under both men. Other masters of sculpture such 
as the Englishman John Flaxman, known for his work with Josiah 
Wedgwood's manufactories and a highly admired sculptor in his 
own right, were also based professionally in Italy to some degree. In 
addition to the collections of antique statuary and the master studios, 
medical schools welcomed the participation of artists in the dissection of 
cadavers, allowing artists to obtain scientific, anatomical knowledge of 
the human body crucial to the work of a serious sculptor. Other practical 
reasons for choosing Italy abounded, including the availability of the 
fine white Carrara marble and Italian workmen to carve the marble. 
Unlike the artisan stonecutters of America, Italian stonecutters were 
proficient technicians who could be relied on to carve the final version 
of a statue using an age-old mechanical transfer technique called the 
"point" system. The sculptor was therefore free to express his creative 
genius through his modeling of the malleable clay into its final form but 
did not necessarily learn to carve in stone or marble himself, although 
most of the American sculptors discussed here did. 

Other aspiring artists stayed in America and became professional 
sculptors with limited training through sheer force of talent, deter- 
mination, and luck; these included Henry Dexter, Erastus Dow Palmer, 
and Edward Augustus Brackett. Dexter and Brackett both received 
multiple commissions from patrons and lot owners at Mount Auburn 
Cemetery. Regardless of where the training, formal or not, took place, 



Elise Madeleine Ciregna 107 



most sculptors sought out or received commissions for works at 
cemeteries, suggesting that the links between American sculpture, art 
appreciation, and cemeteries in nineteenth-century America was much 
stronger than has been heretofore acknowledged. 



Patronage was a crucial element to the development of American 
sculpture. Patronage in any form, whether through civic or philanthropic 
activities, has since Antiquity been the foundation of an artist's success. 
The important patrons of sculpture in Boston and Cambridge were 
largely the well-educated and wealthy men who comprised Boston's 
cultural and intellectual elite. By and large the same men who helped 
to found Mount Auburn Cemetery and purchased lots there — such 
notables as Joseph Story, Jacob Bigelow, Charles Sumner, Edward 
Everett, and Thomas Handasyd Perkins — comprised a select group 
who founded, headed, or funded the cultural and civic institutions, 
including the Boston Athenaeum and Mount Auburn, that made Boston 
the "Athens of America." 

An oil painting of the sculptor Erastus Dow Palmer's studio, done 
in 1857 by the artist Tompkins H. Matteson, presents a "typical" 
interior of a professional sculptor's studio (Fig. 2). Possibly produced 
as an elaborate advertisement since all of the sculptures depicted were 
well-known works by Palmer, the painting also provides a somewhat 
romanticized view of the career of a professional American sculptor in 
the mid-nineteenth century. 10 Although Palmer himself never trained or 
worked professionally in Italy, the activities and people in his studio are 
clearly based on those found in the studios and workshops of American 
sculptors in Italy. The main figure in the forefront is the sculptor (Palmer), 
a former carpenter and cameo cutter, who wears the garb of the serious 
artist: a smock to protect his street clothes and a velvet cap. The sculptor 
is at work on the wet clay model of a woman's bust, apparently giving 
instruction to the younger sculptor seated next to him. In the background 
a technician or workman uses calipers, or pointing machine, to measure 
a work in preparation to making a copy; another workman busies 
himself in the next room. The technicians produced copies of Palmer's 
most popular works for sale — a clue that the distinctions we make today 



108 



Museum in the Garden 





Fig. 2. Tompkins H. Matteson (1813-1884), A Sculptor's Studio (Studio 

of Erastus Dow Palmer), oil on canvas, 1857. Courtesy, Albany 

Institute of History & Art. Gift of Walter Launt Palmer in memory of 

his mother, Mary Jane Seamans (Mrs. Erastus Dow) Palmer. 



between "fine art" and "popular art" were much more fluid during the 
first decades of America's popular interest in sculpture. 

Throughout Palmer's studio are sculptures representative of the three 
main types of commissions a working sculptor could expect to receive: 
portrait busts, "ideal" sculpture, and memorial sculpture. Portrait 
busts — showing just the head, shoulders and breast — were the bread 
and butter of any working sculptor. While they provided a steady source 
of income, the repetitive, formulaic portrait busts (in an era just before 
the widespread availability of portrait photography) could frustrate an 
artist's more creative ambitions. Commenting on the unvarying nature 



Elise Madeleine Ciregna 109 



of these commissions from Americans on the Grand Tour, Horatio 
Greenough complained to his brother Henry in 1844: "I have refused to 
make busts at less than one hundred napoleons. I care not if I never get 
any more orders of that sort. Our good folk think statues can be turned 
out like yards of sheeting." 11 

Greenough and other ambitious sculptors preferred to concentrate 
their energies on the more prestigious commissions of ideal sculpture. 
Ideal sculpture was the work that separated the merely proficient 
sculptor from the artist of true "genius," that necessary quality of truly 
great American men, whether politican, scholar, or artist. Distinct from 
portrait sculpture, public monuments, and genre pieces, subject matter 
for ideal sculpture was drawn from history, literature, the Bible, or 
mythology, and was usually commissioned by either a wealthy private 
patron or an institution (for example, a court seeking allegorical figures 
of Truth and Justice). 12 The training of an aspiring sculptor in Italy often 
meant learning first how to produce copies of classical Greek and Roman 
sculpture. An artist was considered to have reached his early maturity 
as a sculptor when he was not just a competent portraitist or copyist, 
but when he finally produced an entirely original ideal sculpture, taking 
a moment, event, or figure from a literary or historical source and 
interpreting it for the first time or in a way no other artist had before. 
A solid education in classical literature and history was a tremendous 
asset for the sculptor seeking out new and original ideas, often the first 
challenge in producing an entirely original sculpture. 

In Matterson's painting of Palmer's studio, portrait busts and several 
ideal sculptures, including the low-relief medallions, amply represent 
these two common types of commissions. Another important type of 
commission, cemetery or memorial sculpture, is also represented in the 
painting. The arched plaque on the back wall between the two medallions 
is the Elizabeth W. Meads Memorial of 1852, installed in St. Peter's Church, 
Albany. More visible is the dramatically displayed sculpture of a sleeping 
girl and cross, the Grace Williams Memorial, a work Palmer executed in 
1856 as a commission from the young girl's parents. The centrally placed 
sculpture is one of the most prominent works in the painting, not only 
representing the favorable reception the sculpture received when it was 
completed, but also suggesting that Palmer was as interested in cemetery 
commissions as he was other types of commissions. We will return to the 



1 1 Museum in the Garden 



Grace Williams Memorial later in this article, since the possible inspiration 
for this sculpture was a monument at Mount Auburn Cemetery. 



Founded in 1831, Mount Auburn Cemetery introduced several new 
concepts to American burial practice: that a cemetery would provide a 
permanent place for gravesites (in an age when urban burial grounds 
were full, and grave pits were periodically recycled); that gravesites 
would become part of a beautiful and natural landscape; and that 
burial space would be affordable and available to everyone, without 
regard to economic means or religious affiliation. Virtually from its 
inception, Mount Auburn was a tremendous success, proudly included 
in guidebooks as a "must-see" for Bostonians as well as out-of-town 
guests. 13 

Nineteenth-century visitors to Mount Auburn were presented with 
a complex, many-layered experience. As historian Blanche Linden- 
Ward has discussed, visitors came for a wide range of reasons besides 
mourning. Mount Auburn's purpose was to provide visitors with a 
"didactic, soothing, restorative place for all ages, all religions, and all 
classes," experiences that were confirmed in contemporary accounts of 
visits to it and to other cemeteries built on Mount Auburn's model. The 
cemetery was to be a place for melancholy reflection, for admiration of 
the "natural" (designed) romantic landscape, for uplift and renewal, and 
for moral and religious instruction directly applicable to one's personal 
conduct and beliefs. Guidebooks emphasized appropriate ways to tour 
the sights and attractions of the cemetery. 14 (Much to the dismay of 
founders and managers, however, Mount Auburn and other cemeteries 
also often became a place of recreation, a situation that led to the 
enactment of strict policies regulating visitation at many cemeteries.) 15 

An important part of Mount Auburn's appeal lay in the public 
viewing of gravestones and monuments (Fig. 3). The original concep- 
tion of the cemetery included the idea that restrained, solemn classical 
monuments would present moral qualities to the living. 16 In his 
consecration address, Justice Joseph Story stated: "It should not be 
for the poor purpose of gratifying our vanity or pride, that we should 
erect columns, and obelisks, and monuments to the dead; but that we 



Elise Madeleine Cireena 



111 



may read thereon much of our duty and destiny." 17 In addition, some 
observers also saw the act of erecting cemetery monuments as having 
the potential for improving America's taste in the arts. In Boston, where 
America's inferiority in this regard was keenly felt, one regular writer for 
the Boston Evening Transcript commented in November 1841: "We have 
not the temples, marbles, or pictures of Greece and Italy, by which to 
guide our judgment or educate our taste. . . . We are erecting buildings, 
adorning them with pictures and statuary, building monuments in our 
cemeteries, [etc.], and we get laughed at by foreigners for many of our 
clumsy failures." He concluded: "Let our citizens educate their taste, so 
that they can criticize all matters belonging to the fine arts with learning 
and skill [and] our city will be [tastefully] adorned." 18 The "monuments 
in cemeteries" were to be part of this new age of American "fine arts." 
My use of the term "museum" to describe Mount Auburn is meant to 
suggest the fact that sometimes visitors went to the cemetery just to view 
sculptural works. 

The first figural sculpture to pique the public's interest was installed 




Fig. 3. Viewing the Hannah Adams Monument at Mount Auburn 

Cemetery. Central Square, engraving by James Smillie, 1847. 

Courtesy, Mount Auburn Cemetery. 



112 



Museum in the Garden 



at Mount Auburn with little fanfare sometime in 1840 (Fig. 4). 19 The 
sculpture was of a sleeping child with crossed arms on her breast and 
crossed bare feet, lying peacefully on her back in her bed, protected by 
a canopy supported by fluted columns. Henry Dexter, a blacksmith- 
turned-sculptor, executed the carving with assistance from Alpheus 
Cary, a well-established Boston stonecutter. The work memorialized 
four-year-old Emily Binney, who had died in May 1839 of diphtheria, 
a common enough occurrence in the nineteenth century. What was not 
so common was that Emily's family commissioned a full-length figural 
sculpture to mark her grave instead of ordering a traditional small 
child's marker from a stonecutter. 20 

The selection of Henry Dexter by the Binney family, a seminal 
occurrence in the history of American sculpture, is worth a closer look. 
A successful blacksmith, Dexter so desperately wanted to be an artist 
that he left his family in Connecticut behind (with their blessing) to 
move to Boston and train under his wife's uncle, the modestly successful 
portrait painter Francis Alexander. Dexter's painting career did not 
take off, but an early attempt at modeling clay convinced him that he 
was much better suited to the art of sculpture. Alexander's professional 




Fig. 4. Henry Dexter, Vie Binney Child, 1840. 

In Nathaniel Dearborn's Guide Through Mount Auburn (1875). 

Courtesy, Mount Auburn Cemetery. 



Elise Madeleine Ciregna 1 13 



connections in Boston benefited Dexter. Probably with some help from 
stonecutters such as Cary (who had also provided Horatio Greenough 
with early training in carving), the former blacksmith essentially taught 
himself the art of modeling and carving. Within a short time he had 
earned a reputation as a competent, hard-working sculptor. 

In a city that had seen its great son Horatio Greenough leave to seek 
training and professional opportunities from abroad, the news spread 
through Boston that a native, self-taught sculptor was in residence 
in Boston. Over the next few years, Dexter received commissions for 
portrait busts (almost all in clay or plaster) from illustrious Bostonians, 
including the Reverend Hubbard Winslow, Peter Harvey (a close friend 
of Daniel Webster), Colonel Handasyd Perkins, and Samuel Eliot, then 
Mayor of Boston. 

Either shortly before or soon after Emily Binney's death, Alexander 
completed a portrait of the little girl, dated 1839 (now in a private 
collection). The girl is depicted with cropped hair, shorn most likely due 
to her illness. It seems likely that as the Binney family mourned Emily, 
the relative lack of available sculptors to execute a commission, or a 
suggestion from Alexander, led them to Dexter. Little is known today 
about the specific circumstances of the commission or possible sources 
of inspiration. However, my research as well as the work of other 
historians suggests that either the educated and well-traveled Binneys, 
or Dexter (perhaps at the Binney family's request) may have looked for 
inspiration to English funerary sculpture of children such as the work of 
Francis Chantrey or Thomas Banks, or else to depictions of children by 
Italian sculptors such as Lorenzo Bartolini. 21 

The Binney family could hardly have anticipated the intense 
public interest the sculpture soon generated. Newspapers reported 
(erroneously) that the sculpture was the first full-length figural work in 
marble produced by a native artist on American soil (Horatio Greenough 
and others had already found fame with works produced in Italy and 
shipped back to the United States). Vie Binney Child soon became a great 
attraction. One biographer of Dexter wrote: "This pathetic figure . . . 
drew throngs to Mount Auburn. It was the principal attraction of that 
celebrated cemetery, and largely helped to make its early fame. I can 
myself recall the time when it was a common excursion, if one wished to 
take a walk or entertain a friendly stranger, to go out to Mount Auburn 



1 14 Museum in the Garden 



to see The Binney Child." 22 The reference to the sculpture as having been 
the most important factor in the cemetery's early fame was, of course, 
a genial bit of hyperbole to memorialize Dexter and should be read as 
such. Still, written nearly sixty years after the fact, these words do point 
to the far-ranging celebrity of this one small sculpture in its time. Emily 
Binney' s memorial would be Dexter' s best-known work. 

The fame of The Binney Child was destined to last only a few decades, 
after which the marble sculpture apparently deteriorated significantly. 
By the 1930s Tlie Binney Child had been removed (current location, if any, 
unknown) and today a small headstone marked simply "Emily" remains, 
lined up with the headstones of other family members. It is difficult today 
to assess the quality of the sculpture, since no photographic record is 
known to exist, and only two drawings, neither particularly satisfactory, 
survive. 23 However, it is clear that The Binney Child inspired writers as 
diverse as Nathaniel Hawthorne and Lydia Sigourney to refer to the 
memorial in their writings. Hawthorne even featured the sculpture in his 
1843 short story entitled "The New Adam and Eve." The story, a fantasy 
tale, tells of a husband and wife, a couple of wide-eyed innocents, who 
wander for a day through Boston and its environs. Finally, at the end of 
the day, they reach the grounds of Mount Auburn Cemetery. Hawthorne 
writes of the couple's reactions: 

The idea of Death is in them, or not far off. But, were 
they to choose a symbol for him, it would be the butterfly 
soaring upward, or the bright angel beckoning them aloft, 
or the child asleep, with soft dreams visible through her 
transparent purity. . . . Such a Child, in whitest marble, they 
have found among the monuments of Mount Auburn. 24 

The influence of The Binney Child reached well beyond the boundaries 
of local interest. The sculpture (with a few modifications) was most 
likely the inspiration for Erastus Dow Palmer's Grace Williams Memorial 
of 1856 (Fig. 5), a work in the Grace Church in Utica, New York, and 
the one featured in Matteson's painting, discussed earlier (Fig. 2). The 
popularity of the Williams memorial eventually led Palmer to market 
another version of the sculpture with a different face but similar pose. 
That sculpture was called, simply, Sleep. It was also popularized through 



Elise Madeleine Ciregna 



115 



stereoviews, photographic images that were viewed in the home for 
edification and entertainment (the early version of today's ViewMaster). 
While it is unknown exactly how many commissions Palmer may have 
received for cemetery installations during his career, Palmer completed 
at least seven different commissions for other funerary sculptures and 
bas-reliefs, mostly for cemeteries in the Albany area where he spent most 
of his professional life. He also produced at least one work for a Vermont 
cemetery. Unsigned copies or near replicas of Palmer's work have also 
been noted in other cemeteries. 25 

Henry Dexter's success was assured with the overwhelming re- 
sponse to Tlie Binney Child. Subsequent commissions for nearly 200 
known works included several more full-figure sculptures such as the 
one of General Joseph Warren for the Bunker Hill Monument. In 1842, 




Fig. 5. Erastus Dow Palmer, Grace Williams Memorial, 1856, 

Grace Church, Utica, NY. Courtesy, The Winterthur Library: 

Joseph Downs Collection of Manuscripts and Printed Ephemera. 



1 1 6 Museum in the Garden 



Dexter again received much praise, this time for his portrait bust of 
Charles Dickens, who was then touring America while he conducted 
research for the book eventually published as American Notes for General 
Circulation. Dickens and his wife were pleased with the bust, and the 
Boston Transcript had nothing but praise for the sculptor: "It is known 
to many that during Mr. Dickens's visit to our city, Mr. Dexter, a 
gentleman whose merit as a sculptor is equalled only by his worth and 
modesty as a man, modeled a fine bust of him. ... It is one of the finest 
busts of modern times, and in after years will give a high character of 
the state of the arts in this city at the time in which it was produced." 26 
Dexter received a number of commissions from patrons located in other 
parts of the country, including South Carolina and Kansas, but patrons 
in Massachusetts, particularly Boston and Cambridge, remained his 
greatest source of commissions. In 1847, several prominent Bostonians, 
including Thomas Handasyd Perkins, David Sears, and Francis Calley 
Gray, helped raise the funds to finance the transfer to marble of Dexter' s 
ambitious sculpture entitled The Backwoodsman, which was exhibited at 
the Boston Athenaeum in 1848 and later owned by Wellesley College. 27 
In ensuing years Dexter produced more sculptures for patrons at Mount 
Auburn Cemetery, including a statue of Frank Gardner (1851), the 
Mountfort Monument (1853), and even the elaborate granite curbing at 
his own family's lot. Dexter was also commissioned to sculpt a dog for 
a grave at Forest Hills Cemetery (1854). All of these works are extant 
today. 

The popularity of Tlie Binney Child probably inspired other lot 
owners to commission sculptures for family graves. Commissions for 
works destined for placement — and viewing — at Mount Auburn began 
to increase. Philocosmos, the regular correspondent of the Boston Daily 
Evening Transcript, having just viewed a work in progress destined 
for Mount Auburn Cemetery, commented in 1842: "If those who 
have lots in Mount Auburn will but employ the genius of American 
artists, undoubtedly the first in the world, they may soon make it 
as remarkable for the treasures of art collected there, as it is now for 
its scenery." 28 That prediction was coming true even as he wrote 
those words. 



Elise Madeleine Ciregna 1 1 7 



One of the most notable of the early works to grace Mount Auburn's 
landscape was a sculpture of a dog (Fig. 6). In the mid-1830s Horatio 
Greenough, already hailed as America's most celebrated sculptor, 
received a commission from the Perkins family for a sculpture to be 
placed at Mount Auburn Cemetery. More than any other figure of early 
nineteenth-century Boston, Thomas Handasyd Perkins (1764-1854), the 
patriarch of that family, had already helped to promote what one scholar 
has called the "spirit of collecting" in Boston. 29 Known as "The Merchant 
Prince" for his extremely successful enterprise in the China Trade and 
his many other business ventures, Perkins often put his wealth to use for 
the betterment of Boston institutions and society. An early and lifelong 
patron of the arts, Perkins was one of Horatio Greenough' s earliest 
supporters. He provided the twelve-year-old Horatio with access to the 
private collections of the Boston Athenaeum to study its plaster casts 
and statuary, and, later on, with passage (on one of his merchant ships) 
to Italy, where Greenough continued his studies and embarked on his 
professional career. In 1835 Perkins, his son Thomas Handasyd Perkins, 
Junior, and his grandson Thomas Handasyd Perkins, Tertius, visited 
Greenough at his studio in Florence, where they approvingly viewed 
Greenough's works in progress. These included a large sculpture of 
George Washington, which would later become Greenough's most 
controversial work. 

The two Perkins men may also have met Greenough's new pet 
greyhound Arno, who would become the subject of one of Greenough's 
few animal sculptures, completed around 1839 and exhibited at the 
Boston Athenaeum in 1840 (now in the collection of the Museum of Fine 
Arts, Boston). A commission for a sculpture of a dog may have been 
extended at that time by one of the Perkins men to Greenough. It is not 
known if the commission was from Perkins Senior, who owned a crypt in 
a Boston church and a lot (never used and later sold) at Mount Auburn, 
or his son, who actually owned the lot at Mount Auburn where the dog 
was eventually placed. 31 It is also not known if the Perkins sculpture was 
meant to represent a family pet. Greenough mentions his work on the 
"Perkins dog" only once, in connection with his difficulty in finding a 
suitable live model. There is no indication he found one; his solution 
was "to send to Paris for a good lithograph, which, with a St. Bernard 
specimen, must answer." 31 



118 



Museum in the Garden 




Fig. 6. Horatio Greenough, Dog, Perkins Family gravesite, circa 1844. 
Photograph by author. 




Fig. 7. Joseph Gott, English Setter, Francis Calley Gray gravesite 
(1837, placed circa 1856). Photograph by author. 



Elise Madeleine Ciregna 



119 



Greenough's final result was a delightful representation of a New- 
foundland, a popular nineteenth-century breed of dog. The dog has an 
animated expression and a thick, curly coat that is more characteristic of 
a Saint Bernard dog. Since Greenough acknowledged he planned to use 
a Saint Bernard as a live model, this is not surprising, but the fact that 
Saint Bernards, another popular breed during the Victorian era, were 
sometimes crossbred with Newfoundland dogs to produce the hardy 
combination of physical qualities that still persists in both breeds helps 
to explain Greenough's conception and the visual characteristics of the 
final result. The sculpture proved to be a favorite at the cemetery from 
its placement sometime in the 1840s. Nathaniel Dearborn's 1848 Guide 
Tluvugh Mount Auburn stated that the Perkins Dog "is much admired; 
— and as history makes records of so many acts of fidelity, watchfulness 
and sagacity of the Dog, it is here considered appropriate to place him, as 
an apparent guard to the remains of the family who were his friends; — it 
was beautifully sculptured in Italy from the purest Italian marble." In 




Fig. 8. Thomas A. Carew, Dog, Harnden Monument, circa 1866. 
Photograph by author. 



120 Museum in the Garden 



later years the Perkins Dog would be joined by other dogs commissioned 
from sculptors, including the reclining dog at Francis Calley Gray's grave 
(Fig. 7), commissioned from English sculptor Joseph Gott (completed 
1837, placed at Mount Auburn in 1856 or 1857), the bulldog guarding 
the Harnden Monument (Fig. 8), sculpted by the stonecutter Thomas 
Carew (circa 1866), and a small dog by sculptor Martin Milmore (1866). 
Henry Dexter and Erastus Dow Palmer were also among the artists who 
sculpted dogs and animals for gravesites at other American cemeteries. 
By the late 1830s, garden cemeteries based on the model of Mount 
Auburn began to appear throughout America. Laurel Hill Cemetery 
was founded in Philadelphia in 1836, and Green-Wood Cemetery in 
New York (Brooklyn) was founded just two years later, in 1838. In 
Massachusetts, Forest Hills Cemetery near Boston (1848) and Worcester's 
Hope Cemetery (1849) were founded within months of each other. By 
1849, the great nineteenth-century landscape designer Andrew Jackson 
Downing could assert that "scarcely a city of note in the whole country" 
lacked a rural cemetery. Writing in his magazine, The Horticulturist, 
Downing stated: 

The three great leading cities of the north, New York, 
Philadelphia, Boston, have, each of them, besides their 
great cemeteries — Greenwood, Laurel Hill, Mount Auburn 
— many others of less note . . . any of which would have 
astonished and delighted their inhabitants twenty years 
ago. The great attraction of these cemeteries is not in the fact 
that they are burial places ... all these might be realized 
in a burial ground planted with straight lines of willows 
and sombre avenues of evergreens. The true secret of the 
attraction lies in the natural beauty of the sites, and in the 
tasteful and harmonious embellishment of these sites by art. 
. . . Indeed, in the absence of great public gardens, such as we 
must surely one day have in America, our rural cemeteries 
are doing a great deal to enlarge and educate the popular 
taste in rural embellishment. 32 

As they had at Mount Auburn Cemetery, sculptors received 
commissions from patrons at many of the newer cemeteries, and the 
public continued to receive an education in "the tasteful and harmonious 



Elise Madeleine Cireena 1 2 1 



embellishments" of American sculpture. Smith's Illustrated Guide To and 
Through Laurel Hill Cemetery (1852) announced in its introduction that 
its purpose was to show the visitor "every object of interest in both the 
North and South Laurel Hill Cemeteries, pointing out the beauties and 
merits of the many scenes and works of art with which they abound." 
The guide instructed arriving visitors to head first toward the statues 
of Old Mortality, His Pony, and Sir Walter Scott that are still in place just 
inside the main entrance, since these were "exquisite specimens of art" 
and "superb in design, execution and finish." The author also noted that 
the pony and Scott statues were carved of "American stone." 33 Although 
an observer today, with a more jaded eye, might consider the sculptures 
somewhat awkward in execution, they helped to attract visitors to the 
cemetery and probably introduced many to their first view of formal 
sculpture. 

While Greenough's Perkins Dog was a relatively minor — albeit 
popular — work by a major artist, the Amos Binney Monument by Thomas 
Crawford proved to be one of America's most important funerary 
works (Fig. 9). Crawford, based in Rome, had already found acclaim 
in Boston with his sculpture of Orpheus and Cerberus, paid for with 
funds raised by the patrons of the Boston Athenaeum, of which Amos 
Binney was an active member (though it is not known if the two men 
ever met). The Orpheus and Cerberus had been exhibited several years 
earlier in its own specially constructed and decorated exhibit space, 
generating much public interest and admiration. 34 Charles Sumner, 
the young Boston lawyer who would later gain fame as a United 
States senator and staunch abolitionist, was Crawford's earliest and 
most committed patron, initiating the subscription fund to purchase 
the Orpheus and personally attending to the construction and finish 
details of the exhibit space. 

Mary Ann Binney commissioned the monument from Crawford 
after her husband died in 1847 in Rome, where the couple was travelling. 
The sculpture was destined for placement on Binney' s grave at Mount 
Auburn, where his remains were interred. Discussed in detail by scholar 
Lauretta Dimmick in an article in Markers IX, the memorial to Amos 
Binney — little Emily Binney's uncle — was, as classical scholar Cornelius 
C. Vermeule III has stated, "Mount Auburn's dramatic entry into the 
world of American Neo-Classic, Neo-Roman sculpture." 35 As Dimmick 



122 



Museum in the Garden 




Fig. 9. Thomas Crawford, Male Soul Ascending, The Amos Binney 

Monument, 1850. Photograph, courtesy of Meg Winslow, 

Curator of Historical Collections, Mount Auburn Cemetery. 



Elise Madeleine Ciregna 123 



has described, the large and elegant white marble sculpture incorporated 
classical motifs of death and mourning. 36 The most striking features of 
the monument were the figures carved in relief on either side. The side 
referring to Amos Binney represented an ascending soul. The other side 
depicted the grieving widow as a classical Christian pilgrim (Fig. 10). 37 

The depiction of the ascending soul as male was a completely 
original departure from the usual classical representation of the soul 
as female. Staying away from strict neoclassical tenets that males be 
depicted as nude, Crawford, acting perhaps on a request from Mrs. 
Binney or in deference to American public taste, clothed Binney' s spirit 
figure in diaphanous, rippling drapery, tastefully outlining the male 
form clearly beneath the cloth (Fig. 11). Crawford was not just being 
overly cautious or deferring to his patron's taste, however. In a society 
that still regarded the nude figure with shock or disgust — as Fanny 
Trollope found out during her excursion in Philadelphia — Crawford 
would have had plenty of reasons to be concerned about depicting 
a contemporary male as a nude figure. The controversy surrounding 
the 1841 unveiling of Horatio Greenough's George Washington was one 
reason. Greenough's high-minded conception of George Washington 
as a Zeus-like figure dressed only in a toga and Roman sandals had 
provided years of sarcastic comments and comic fodder for critics and 
cynics at Greenough's expense. The American public was appalled at 
the sculpture of a bare-chested, nearly nude American hero, and the 
sculpture was finally laughed out of its prominent outdoor location 
to a less visible situation. Greenough had also endured criticism for a 
sculpture depicting nude cherubs, prompting concerned citizens to tie 
aprons around the small sculptures' waists. 

Sensitive to these concerns, Crawford had avoided incurring similar 
criticism with his very first important sculpture of Orpheus by giving 
his otherwise nude hero a fig leaf and a cape, covering all the physical 
attributes of the god that his public might have found objectionable. 
Similarly, the male ascending spirit of the Amos Binney monument 
was moderately covered. The nude figure — particularly the female 
nude figure — definitely became part of the nineteenth-century popular 
American sculptural canon, as celebrated works such as Hiram Powers' 
Tlie Greek Slave (1844) and Erastus Dow Palmer's The White Captive (1859) 
attest. But sculptural works installed at cemeteries in nineteenth-century 
America were unfailingly draped, clothed, and robed, reserving the nude 



124 



Museum in the Garden 







Fig. 10. Thomas Crawford, Female Mourner, The Amos Binney 

Monument, 1850. Arthur C. Haskell photograph, circa 1937. 

Courtesy, Mount Auburn Cemetery. 



Elise Madeleine Ciregna 



125 




Fig. 11. Detail of Amos Binney monument. 



figure for other types of commissions and public exhibits. Crawford and 
generations of fellow sculptors carefully navigated the waters of public 
ignorance and morality to obtain American patrons. 

Anticipating another masterwork from the creator of the Orpheus, 
the American public excitedly awaited the arrival of Tlw Amos Binney 
Monument from Italy. Finally, three years after Binney's death, the 
New-York Commercial Advertiser announced on June 4, 1850: "We inform 
the lovers of the fine arts that another admirable work by our gifted 
countryman, Crawford . . . has arrived in this city from Rome. It has been 
expected for some time, but owing to its great size considerable difficulty 
occurred in finding a vessel at Leghorn that would receive it on board." 3 ' 
The monument was soon on its way to Boston, where as expected, it was 
received with great public approval. The Boston Daily Evening Transcript 
pronounced T)ie Amos Binney Monument a "work of rare merit," 39 and 
guidebooks listed "the splendid mausoleum of two fronts to Dr. Binney" 
as one of the main points of interest in the cemetery. 40 Although Crawford 
had designed other funerary monuments and actively competed for 



126 Museum in the Garden 



commissions of these, his death of brain cancer at forty-four years of 
age in 1857, at the height of his artistic mastery and fame, prevented 
him from executing any more. At his death he was working on another 
work, discussed below, for Mount Auburn Cemetery. Vie Amos Binney 
Monument remains one of his most recognized works and his only 
realized funerary monument. A daguerreotype made by the Boston firm 
of Southworth and Hawes soon after the monument's installation shows 
a glossy white marble sculpture that fairly glows in its surroundings. 
Though now badly weathered, The Amos Binney Monument is today still 
considered a masterpiece of early American sculpture. 41 



The importance of the cemetery to patronage of American sculpture 
is highlighted by one of the most extraordinary acts of Mount Auburn's 
trustees. In 1840, as the trustees discussed plans for a chapel (now known 
as the Bigelow Chapel), the minutes record the idea that the proposed 
building should also "become the repository of Marble Busts and Statues 
and other Sepulchral [monuments] which may from time to time be 
placed there by liberal Benefactors and Friends in memory of the Dead, 
and which would not bear the exposure of the open air in our Climate." 42 
The suggestion was controversial and generated heated debates about 
the propriety of using funds for the purpose of commissioning sculpture 
(a notion which seems also to have been part of these discussions). 
Recorded comments from several trustees in favor of the sculpture 
show they felt strongly about the necessity of "embellishments": "Rich 
dresses are embellishments of the person, virtue is an embellishment 
of the mind, and liberal arts are an embellishment of society. And we 
think commemoration statues are an embellishment of a Cemetery." 43 The 
argument in favor of sculpture prevailed. 

The sudden death in 1845 of Joseph Story, one of the founders 
of Mount Auburn and the man who had delivered its memorable 
consecration address, provided the impetus for the cemetery to 
commission a large, figural memorial of the eminent jurist (Fig. 12), the 
first major sculpture planned for placement in the new chapel. Story's 
son, William Wetmore Story, a lawyer and amateur artist, received the 
commission in a surprise decision. The younger Story had long harbored 



Elise Madeleine Cireana 127 



a desire to become an artist. His father's death, ironically, finally gave 
him the freedom to fulfill his dream. Story and his family moved to Italy, 
where he pursued his training as a sculptor while working on his first 
important commission. The work took nearly ten years to complete, a 
remarkable comment on the trustees' willingness to support such an 
endeavor. Cemetery trustees thereafter decided to commission three 
more figural statues, each meant to represent important men of different 
periods in American, and more specifically, Massachusetts history. 
To ensure that the commissions would all be completed in a timely 
fashion and to provide work for as many deserving American sculptors 
as possible, each commission was awarded to a different sculptor, all 
of whom lived abroad: the figure of John Winthrop (the first governor 
of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, representing the earliest period) to 
Richard Saltonstall Greenough (Horatio Greenough's younger brother); 
the figure of James Otis (the lawyer and political leader, representing the 
first resistance to British power) to Thomas Crawford; and the figure of 
John Adams (a founding father and second President of the United States, 
representing independence and establishment of republican law) to 
Randolph Rogers (Figs. 13-15). The sculpture of Joseph Story represented 
the fourth period in American history, an era of the "supremacy of law 
and of intellectual, moral, and social progress." 44 Horatio Greenough 
might have received a commission in place of his brother, who was 
at the beginning of his professional success, but Greenough had died 
prematurely in December 1852, leaving the field he had pioneered to 
others. That the trustees nearly exhausted their possibilities of well- 
respected American sculptors for the commissions is a telling comment 
on the state of American sculpture in its earliest generations. 

There were numerous delays and complications along the way. 
The most serious of these were the untimely death of Crawford before 
completion of his commission and the loss at sea of Rogers's sculpture. 
Rogers, one of Crawford's closest friends, not only finished Crawford's 
sculpture but also reproduced another of his own (with the help of the 
Italian stonecutters who usually produced Rogers's final versions). By 
1859, the sculptures of all four of the "persons distinguished in American 
history" were in place in the chapel, where they watched over several 
generations of mourners attending services. No record has been found of 
public or personal experience with these particular sculptures, although 



128 



Museum in the Garden 




Figure 12. William Wetmore 
Story, Joseph Story, 1855. Half 
of a stereographic photograph, 
circa 1865. Courtesy, Society 
for the Preservation of 
New England Antiquities. 



Fig. 13. Richard Saltonstall 

Greenough, John Winthrop, 

1857. Half of a stereographic 

photograph, circa 1865. Courtesy, 

Society for the Preservation of 

New England Antiquities. 




Elise Madeleine Ciregna 



129 





H 1 










st't 





Fig. 14. Thomas Crawford, 
James Otis, 1857-58. Half of a 
stereographic photograph, 
circa 1865. Courtesy, Society 
for the Preservation of 
New England Antiquities. 



Fig. 15. Randolph Rogers, 

John Adams, 1857-59. Half of a 

stereographic photograph, 

circa 1865. Courtesy, Society 

for the Preservation of 

New England Antiquities. 




130 Museum in the Garden 



guidebooks clearly included the chapel as one of the recommended 
stops for casual visitors, making it difficult to draw any conclusions 
about the direct effect of these commissions on each of the sculptors' 
future patrons. 

Nevertheless, the professional careers of each of the Bigelow Chapel 
sculptors flourished (with the obvious exception of Crawford, the most 
senior of the four, who was a leading artist of America's pioneering first 
generation of sculptors) after these commissions. All became celebrated 
artists in their time. Story and Rogers each subsequently executed 
important works for placement at other cemeteries. Story's memorial 
to his wife, entitled the Angel of Grief, erected at her gravesite in Rome's 
Protestant Cemetery, apparently captured the American public's 
attention. The sculpture was reproduced in blueprint form by at least 
one monument company, the Leland Company in New York City, and 
sculpted for the Cassard family gravesite in Green-Wood Cemetery 
sometime around 1910. 45 A number of reproductions have also appeared 
in other cemeteries in various shades of marble as well as granite. A 
recent article in the AGS Quarterly by Sybil F. Crawford identifies at least 
seven other known reproductions of the Angel of Death, as it is also called, 
including works at Calvary Cemetery, St. Louis, Missouri; Cypress 
Lawn Cemetery, Colma, California; Forest Park Lawndale Cemetery 
and Glenwood Cemetery, both in Houston, Texas; Friendship Cemetery, 
Columbus, Mississippi; Oakland Cemetery, Little Rock, Arkansas; and 
Scottsville Cemetery, Scottsville, Texas. 46 Although angels became fairly 
common grave sculpture motifs during the nineteenth century, Story's 
creation, the production of a professionally trained artist, seems to have 
struck a particularly resonant chord with mourners over the years. 

After his work for Mount Auburn Cemetery, Randoph Rogers received 
commissions for several more sculptural works placed in cemeteries. 
When industrialist Samuel Colt, inventor of the Colt revolver, died in 
January 1862, his wife commissioned Rogers to design a monument for 
her husband's grave in Cedar Hill Cemetery in Hartford, Connecticut. 
Installed in the late 1860s, the elaborate monument entitled the Angel of 
Resurrection consists of a large base and tall shaft of granite supporting 
a bronze sculpture. 47 A memorial sculpture on an entirely different scale 
was the one Rogers designed and executed for J.W. Waterman of Detroit 
in 1868 (Fig. 16). Titled Flight of the Spirit, the monument is reminiscent 



Elise Madeleine Ciregna 



131 




Fig. 16. Randolph Rogers, Flight of the Spirit (J.W. Waterman 
Monument), 1868. Courtesy, Elmwood Cemetery, Detroit. 



132 



Museum in the Garden 




Fig. 17. Thomas Ball, The dickering Monument ("The Realization 
of Faith"), 1872. Courtesy, Mount Auburn Cemetery. 



Elise Madeleine Ciregna 133 



in conception of Thomas Crawford's Amos Binney Monument, executed 
twenty years before. Rogers produced another version of his Flight of 
the Spirit for his own gravesite in Rome's Campo Verano Cemetery. 
Inscribed into the stone is a line from Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: 
"Dead is he not, but departed — for the artist never dies." 48 

As the first generation of American sculptors passed from the scene, 
succeeding generations of professional American sculptors continued 
to add sculptures to the landscape of Mount Auburn Cemetery. Works 
ranging in size from the massive Chickering Monument, also known as 
The Realization of Faith (1872), by Thomas Ball, creator of the popular 
George Washington statue in Boston's Public Garden, to the delicate figure 
of the goddess Hygeia (1875) by Edmonia Lewis, America's first African- 
American sculptor, provided allegorical figures and classical references 
for the enjoyment of viewers (Figs. 17-18). Thomas Ball also trained some 
of America's best-known sculptors, including Martin Milmore and Daniel 
Chester French, the creator of the Lincoln Memorial. The sculptor Martin 
Milmore may hold the distinction for having produced the widest range 
in size of sculptural works at one cemetery. At Mount Auburn, he was 
not only commissioned to sculpt a small dog for the grave of two young 
brothers and an angel for a different family's daughter's grave, but he 
also carved Mount Auburn's largest and best-known work, the great 
Sphinx (Fig. 19). Commissioned in the late 1860s by Jacob Bigelow, one of 
the founders of the cemetery, and installed with great public fanfare in 
the summer of 1872, the Sphinx commemorated the end of the Civil War 
and slavery. Milmore had also completed one of his best-known works, 
the Roxbury Soldiers' Monument, for the Forest Hills Cemetery outside 
Boston (1867). Milmore's legacy as a sculptor would later be highlighted 
and linked by Boston's two great garden cemeteries. In 1892, nine years 
after Milmore's early death from liver disease, Daniel Chester French 
created a memorable memorial to Martin Milmore and his stonecutter 
brothers, all of whom had also died tragically young. Now situated at 
the entrance to Forest Hills Cemetery, where Milmore is buried, the large 
bronze relief is entitled Tlie Angel of Death Staying the Hand of the Sculptor. 
The sculpture depicts Milmore interrupted in his work by the winged 
figure of Death. In a direct reference to Mount Auburn Cemetery, the 
work the sculptor is engaged in is the carving of the figure of the Sphinx 
at Mount Auburn (Fig. 20). 



134 



Museum in the Garden 




Fig. 18. Edmonia Lewis, Hygeia 
(Harriot Kezia Hunt Monument), 1875. Photograph by author. 



Elise Madeleine Ciresna 



135 




Fig. 19. Martin Milmore, The Sphinx, 1871. One-half of a 
stereographic photograph. Courtesy, Mount Auburn Cemetery. 



136 



Museum in the Garden 



Nineteenth-century chroniclers lauded the accomplishments of 
Mount Auburn's founders. In a memoir of Jacob Bigelow, published in 
1880, one biographer wrote that Bigelow "was the first — we may say, in 
Christendom — to conceive, propose, and earnestly and patiently guide 
on to a most complete triumph, the plan of an extensive forest-garden 
cemetery, combining the wildness of nature with the finish of culture, 
with all appropriate arrangements and adornments." The "finish of 
culture" included the sophisticated and "appropriate" presentation of 
nineteenth-century American sculpture. 49 

The Civil War and its wrenching aftermath, as historians have noted, 
sounded the death knell for American sentimentalism in literature 
and art. Death no longer held a romantic, melancholy attraction to 
cemetery-goers. In sculpture, the effects were also felt, as war memorials 




Fig. 20. Daniel Chester French, Milmore Memorial, 1891, Forest Hills 
Cemetery. Courtesy, Forest Hills Cemetery Educational Trust. 



Elise Madeleine Ciregna 137 



dominated commissions. Milmore's Roxbury Soldiers' Monument of 1867 
and Augustus Saint-Gaudens' Shaw Memorial (1884, cast 1897) were part 
of a new aesthetic that helped usher in a new era in American memorial 
sculpture in which classically-inspired allusions in glowing white marble 
gave way to realistic representations of fallen soldiers and patriots, 
usually captured in the dark tones of the more robust medium of bronze. 
Gravesite commissions extended to late-nineteenth-century American 
sculptors — among them the Adams Memorial by St. Gaudens in Rock 
Creek Cemetery, Washington, D.C., commissioned by native Bostonian 
Henry Adams — also shifted from classical references in white marble 
to more contemporary representations in bronze and granite, materials 
that were more durable and permanent. Marble gravesite sculpture 
became the domain of monument companies producing angels, lambs, 
doves, tree stumps, and botanical motifs in great quantities. In an ironic 
twist, these often exquisitely carved sculptures were usually produced 
by anonymous workmen, harking back to the artisan traditions of an 
earlier age (Fig. 21). 

As Downing had predicted in 1849, America had developed parks 
and gardens, spurred by the successes of Frederick Law Olmsted (1822- 
1903) and his design of New York's Central Park. 50 Public art museums, 
developed with collections formed by earlier generations of patrons 
and collectors, also began to proliferate. In 1876, one of America's first 
public art museums, Boston's Museum of Fine Arts, opened its doors 
to the public in its handsome, elaborately decorated building in Copley 
Square. The great entrance hall and rooms were filled with the museum's 
collection of American sculptures, some by the same early generations of 
sculptors whose works graced the grounds of Mount Auburn Cemetery, 
including Thomas Crawford and Horatio Greenough. In other rooms, 
white marble sculptures by Randolph Rogers, William Wetmore Story, 
and others lined the walls. Technological developments facilitated the 
mass production of popular sculptures as small-scale tabletop pieces, 
which could be found in nearly every respectable American middle- 
class parlor. A much more experienced and urbane public now went to 
museums rather than the cemetery to see the latest works by favorite 
artists. 

In the twentieth century, many of the sculptures that had earlier 
generated such public excitement disappeared with time, hastening 
their obscurity. Little Emily Binney's memorial survived the harsh 



138 



Museum in the Garden 




Fig. 21. Anonymous, "Father" and "Mother" gravestones, 

Mount Auburn Cemetery, late nineteenth century. 

Photograph by author. 



New England climate for less than a century. Some sculptures made 
their way out of Mount Auburn Cemetery for other reasons. The four 
"historical figures" in Bigelow Chapel were eventually moved to a new 
administration building on the grounds of Mount Auburn in the 1890s 
and displayed in its rotunda. In 1935 the sculptures were donated to 
Harvard University, which still owns them today. Now separated from 
each other, the statue of Joseph Story greets visitors to the Harvard Law 
School Library; John Adams and John Winthrop flank the entrance to 
Annenberg Hall, the freshman dining room; and James Otis stands to 
one side of the stage in Harvard's Sanders Theatre, paired with another, 
unrelated sculpture of Josiah Quincy (a sculpture by William Wetmore 
Story, lending at least a coincidental connection). Few, if any, of the 
students and staff who pass by these statues have any idea of their 
origins, or wonder about them at all. Meant to be viewed together, the 
sculptures have lost their original context and have become part of the 
background. 



Elise Madeleine Ciregna 139 



Cemeteries and sculpture are largely peripheral to our lives 
today. This was not the case during much of the nineteenth century. 
Dialogues about proper burial, death and commemoration, nature 
and landscapes, democracy and sculpture formed part of the daily 
discourse of newspapers, writers, intellectuals, and ordinary people. 
Nathaniel Hawthorne was so inspired by American sculpture that 
he based the characters in his novel Tlie Marble Faun on his American 
sculptor friends living in Italy (the main character of Kenyon was based 
on William Wetmore Story). Similarly, Henry James, one of America's 
most celebrated authors, became William Wetmore Story's biographer. 
Contemporary responses to cemetery sculpture expressed a range of 
attitudes and emotions in American society, from nationalistic sentiments 
to the grief of losing a child. Famous authors such as Lydia Sigourney as 
well as anonymous writers wrote odes to the statuary at Mount Auburn 
Cemetery, or memorials to the sculptors who had produced America's 
first great works, articulating a popular excitement that no cemetery or 
sculpture would likely generate today. 

Because of the relative lack of attention and documentation con- 
cerning mid-nineteenth-century cemetery sculpture, it is difficult to 
assess the quantity of cemetery commissions extended to sculptors 
during the early period of American academic sculpture. As far as is 
known, Greenough and Crawford never received any commissions for 
cemeteries other than the ones discussed here, although it must be 
remembered that each of these sculptors died at the height of his fame 
and abilities. As noted earlier, Henry Dexter produced more monuments 
at Mount Auburn after Tlie Binney Child. Besides the Waterman and Colt 
monuments in Detroit and Hartford respectively, Randolph Rogers 
also produced memorial and cemetery works for Gettysburg National 
Military Park (Pennsylvania), National Memorial Park (Falls Church, 
Virginia), and Spring Grove Cemetery in Cincinnati. During his relatively 
short career, Martin Milmore also executed commissions installed at 
Pine Grove Cemetery in Appleton, Maine, and Chester Rural Cemetery 
in Chester, Pennsylvania. Another work in Oak Grove Cemetery, Bath, 
Maine, is probably a copy of a Milmore sculpture. Thomas Ball, the 
creator of Vie Chickering Memorial at Mount Auburn and part of the 
second generation of American sculptors, produced works for patrons 
at Forest Hills Cemetery just outside Boston, and Woodlawn Cemetery 
in Elmira, New York. Henry Kirke Brown, one of the lesser-known and 



140 Museum in the Garden 



today under-appreciated sculptors of the nineteenth century, produced 
works for Mount Auburn Cemetery and Green-Wood Cemetery 
in Brooklyn, New York; another sculpture in Allegheny Cemetery, 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, is attributed to him. 51 Besides the lack of 
reliable records, many uncelebrated sculptors worked in near obscurity, 
producing copies of works by the better-known artists discussed here. 
The bas-relief carved on the 1845 Hurlbert Monument at Mount Auburn 
Cemetery is an exact copy taken from funerary designs published in 
1844 by Edward Augustus Brackett, the Boston sculptor responsible for 
the notable cenotaph of Hosea Ballou (1859) at Mount Auburn. Since the 
work is unsigned, it is impossible to know if Brackett himself carved the 
work or if his design influenced some other local artist. 

For a variety of reasons, some commissions were never completed. 
Brackett himself apparently received a commission for a work at 
Mount Auburn Cemetery long before the Hosea Ballon, a work that 
"Philocosmos" reported on in January 1842 for Boston Daily Evening 
Transcript: "I have repeatedly looked into Mr. Brackett's studio to see the 
progress he has been making in a model for a piece of statuary intended 
for Mount Auburn; as whatever tends to beautify that resting place of 
those we have loved, is of interest to us all." 32 Nothing further is known 
of this work, a sarcophagus, which, as far as is known, never appeared 
on Mount Auburn's landscape. Upon the great orator and statesman 
Edward Everett's death and burial at Mount Auburn in 1865, the Everett 
family commissioned Hiram Powers — who along with Greenough and 
Crawford completed the mid-nineteenth-century triumvirate of most 
celebrated American sculptors — to execute a sculpture for the gravesite. 
Powers had been a close friend of Everett's and had even named one 
of his sons, Edward Everett Powers, in his honor. For reasons that are 
unclear, the sculpture was never installed but was donated to Harvard 
instead. The family then hired sculptor Harriet Hosmer to create an 
allegorical figure entitled Eloquence for the Everett gravesite; that 
commission was never completed. Everett's grave instead was finally 
marked by an elegant, classically inspired sarcophagus. 53 

Mount Auburn Cemetery's prominent and influential role as one 
of America's first truly public cultural institutions and as an early 
institutional patron and promoter of American sculpture cannot be 
ignored by social and cultural historians of nineteenth-century America. 



Elise Madeleine Ciresna 141 



American sculpture's first exhaustive historian, Lorado Taft, pointed out 
in the early twentieth century that for the first generations of American 
sculptors, "immortality seemed to lay through the graveyard." 54 But 
the most eloquent commentary is from the contemporary sources that 
reported on the great happenings at Mount Auburn and recorded the 
excitement sculpture generated in Boston society. Thanks in part to the 
leading role of the American cemetery in introducing great numbers of 
Americans to original academic sculpture, America was not a cultural 
wasteland. In spite of the dire predictions of the Reverend Smith and 
Fanny Trollope, Americans were, indeed, looking at statues. 



142 Museum in the Garden 



NOTES 

1 Reverend Sydney Smith's statement is excerpted from The Edinburgh 
Review 33 (1820): 79. His commentary was part of an on-going series of articles 
decrying America's backwardness as a culture. Richard V. McLamore notes 
in "The Dutchman in the Attic: Claiming an Inheritance in Tlie Sketch Book of 
Geoffrey Crayon," American Literature 72.1 (2000): 31-57, that Smith's attacks on 
America were designed to protect England's reputation as an advanced society 
and to discourage emigration to the New World. 

2 "Ancient Sculpture," Vie Boston Spectator 1.10 (March 5, 1814): 38. 

3 Albert TenEyck Gardner, Yankee Stonecutters: Tlie First American School of 
Sculpture, 1800-1850 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1945), 10-11. ' 
Gardner also lists foreign sculptors who migrated to America and documented 
stonecutters working in America in the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth 
centuries (although today this list can be substantially expanded). 

4 Frederic A. Sharf, "The Garden Cemetery and American Sculpture: Mount 
Auburn," The Art Quarterly 24 (Spring 1961): 80-88. 

5 The study of American sculpture itself has largely suffered in relation to the 
vast body of literature that has been written concerning American painting. 
Reflective of sculpture's late start in the American consciousness, the first 
important work dealing exclusively with American sculpture, Tlie History 

of American Sculpture by Lorado Taft, did not appear until 1903 (New York: 
The Macmillan Company). Taft's book would remain the only major work 
on American sculpture through subsequent editions. The next serious study 
of sculpture was Albert TenEyck Gardner's Yankee Stonecutters: Tlie First 
American School of Sculpture, 1800-1850 (New York: Columbia University Press, 
1945). This study was more limited in scope and relatively short. Another 
comprehensive study of sculpture similar in breadth to Taft's would not appear 
until 1968, with Wayne Craven's seminal Sculpture in America (New York: 
Thomas Y. Crowell Company). More recently, a number of books specializing 
in various aspects of sculpture have appeared, including studies of women 
sculptors and biographies of various sculptors. However, with the exception of 
Gardner's book and another short work by William Gerdts entitled American 
Neo-classic Sculpture (1973), the period of early American sculpture, almost 
by definition Neoclassical, is routinely passed over in favor of sculptors who 
found their greatest fame with Civil War monuments and later works. 

6 See, in particular, three fine dissertations, none of which has yet been 
published: Jan M. Seidler, "A Critical Reappraisal of the Career of William 
Wetmore Story (1819-1895), American Sculptor and Man of Letters," (Ph. 
D. diss., Boston University, 1985); Lauretta Dimmick, "A Catalogue of the 
Portrait Busts and Ideal Works of Thomas Crawford (18137-1857), American 
Sculptor in Rome," (Ph.D. diss., University of Pittsburgh, 1986); and David 



Elise Madeleine Ciregna 143 



Bernard Dearinger, "American Neoclassic Sculptors and their Private Patrons 
in Boston," (Ph.D. diss., City University of New York, 1993). Cultural historian 
Joy Kasson's Marble Queens and Captives: Women in Nineteenth-Century American 
Sculpture (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990), is a fascinating study of 
nineteenth-century American attitudes toward contemporary representations 
of female figures in American Neoclassical sculpture. In the chapter entitled 
"Death and Domestication" Kasson looks at some of the associations between 
death and cemetery sculpture. See also, Jonathan L. Fairbanks, "Eternal 
Celebration in American Memorials," Markers XVI (1999):104-137. 

7 Stanley French, "The Cemetery as Cultural Institution: The Establishment of 
Mount Auburn and the 'Rural Cemetery' Movement," American Quarterly 26.1 
(March 1974): 37. 

8 Carved and Modeled, 9; David Bernard Dearinger, "American Neoclassic 
Sculptors and Their Private Patrons in Boston," (Ph.D. diss., City University of 
New York, 1993), 20. The distinction between "sculptor" and "artisan" becomes 
problematic when considering the work of men such as the woodcarver 
William Rush (1756-1833) and the stonecutter John Frazee (1790-1852), two 
early American artisans who produced sculpture based on classical antecedents 
and who were active professionally well before the period under discussion 

in this article. Besides his ship figureheads, Rush carved full-size figures in 
pine — for example, his pair of statues entitled Comedy and Tragedy (1808) — 
based on classical statuary, and meant for display in a public setting. Frazee 
also produced marble portrait busts based on classical styles for patrons such as 
the Boston Athenaeum. Neither man, however, ever left his career as an artisan 
and producer of utilitarian works to engage in a full-time, exclusive career as 
"artist" or "sculptor." Throughout his career, Rush listed himself simply as a 
"carver" in Philadelphia city directories. Thomas Eakins' paintings entitled 
William Rush Carving His Allegorical Figure of the Schuylkill (1877) and William 
Rush and His Model (1908) attest to the deep respect Eakins felt for Rush as a 
pioneer of early American academic art. 

9 Fanny Trollope, Domestic Manners of the Americans, ed. Pamela Neville- 
Sington (London: Penguin Books Ltd., 1997), 208. 

10 1 am indebted to Dr. Elizabeth Roark of Chatham College for alerting me to 
the possibility that this painting was produced to advertise Palmer's work. Dr. 
Roark notes that Palmer's studio during this period comprised several floors of 
a building — and therefore, Matteson's conception of Palmer's studio conflated 
activities on several floors into one large area. 

11 Frances Boott Greenough, ed., Letters of Horatio Greenough to his Brother, 
Henry Greenough (Boston: Ticknor and Company, 1887), 129. One hundred 
napoleons was roughly equivalent to $500.00. Greenough resolved his 
complaint by raising his fees for portrait busts considerably. 



144 Museum in the Garden 



12 Joy S. Kasson, Marble Queens and Captives: Women in Nineteenth-Century 
American Sculpture (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990), 1. 

13 See especially Blanche Linden- Ward's book, the most comprehensive and 
authoritative work on Mount Auburn Cemetery. 

14 Blanche Linden- Ward, "Strange but Genteel Pleasure Grounds: Tourist 
and Leisure Uses of Nineteenth-Century Rural Cemeteries," in Cemeteries & 
Gravemarkers: Voices of American Culture, ed. Richard E. Meyer (Logan: Utah 
State University Press, 1992), 300. 

15 Policies varied from cemetery to cemetery, but at Mount Auburn these 
included the issuance of one-time passes to tourists, the banning of non-lot 
holders on Sunday, and the banning of horseback riding. 

16 French, "The Cemetery as Cultural Institution," 48. 

17 Vie Picturesque Pocket Companion and Visitor's Guide, through Mount Auburn 
(Boston: Otis, Broaders and Company, 1839), 75. 

18 Philocosmos, "The Fine Arts," Boston Daily Evening Transcript (November 27, 
1841). 

19 Charles J.F. Binney, Genealogy of the Binney Family in the United States 
(Albany, NY: Joel Munsell's Sons, 1886), 35. In his 1961 article on American 
sculptors' works at Mount Auburn Cemetery, Frederic Sharf mistakenly 
identified the date of the installation of the Emily Binney memorial as 1842. 
Although Sharf did not cite his reference, I believe he misread an 1842 article 
that mentioned the Binney memorial, an error that has been repeated by 
successive scholars. 

20 My Master's thesis entitled "Museum in the Garden: Mount Auburn 
Cemetery and the Development of American Sculpture, 1825-1875" (Harvard 
University, 2002) discusses in much greater detail the careers of all of the 
sculptors mentioned here. Dexter and the history of The Binney Child is the 
topic of Chapter Four. See also Kasson, Marble Queens, 109-116. 

21 The 1793 Monument to Penelope Boothby by Banks is in St. Oswald's Parish 
Church, Ashbourne, Derbyshire. Chantrey's The Sleeping Children (1817), a 
monument to two young sisters who died together, is in Litchfield Cathedral, 
Staffordshire. Both sculptures still receive substantial visitation today. 

The location of Lorenzo Bartolini's sculpture entitled Innocence (ca.1825) is 
unknown; I have only seen a photograph of a plaster cast of this work. 

22 John Albee, Henri/ Dexter, Sculptor: A Memorial (Cambridge, MA: privately 
printed, 1898), 59-60. 

23 One image is the rather crude line drawing used in the guidebooks and 
reproduced here; the other is an 1847 engraving by artist James Smillie. 
Although Smillie's work was excellent, the distant perspective and odd angle 



Elise Madeleine Ciregna 145 



he used in his view of Tlie Binney Child makes any assessment of the sculpture's 
technical and aesthetic qualities impossible. 

24 Nathaniel Hawthorne, "The New Adam and Eve," Mosses from an Old Manse 
(New York, NY: Books for Libraries Press, Arno Press, 1970), 301. 

23 Kasson, Marble Queens, 114-115; Smithsonian Institution Research 
Information System. Works by Erastus Dow Palmer at the Albany Rural 
Cemetery in Menands, New York, include The Angel at the Sepulchre at the 
Banks lot and a granite monument at the grave of United States Senator and 
three-term New York Governor William Learned Marcy. Reports of copies 
or near replicas of Palmer's work at other cemeteries have come from 
colleagues; I personally am familiar with one in the Brandywine Cemetery 
in Wilmington, Delaware. 

26 Tlie Boston Evening Transcript (April 9, 1842): 2. 

27 Albee, Henry Dexter, Sculptor, 76-77. The present location of the sculpture 
is unknown. 

28 Philocosmos to Editor, Boston Daily Evening Transcript (January 7, 1842). 

29 Dearinger, American Neoclassic Sculptors, 11. 

30 Perkins Senior was buried with his wife and family in his crypt at St. Paul's 
Cathedral in Boston. His remains and those of other family members were later 
reinterred in the Perkins family plot in the early twentieth century. 

31 Horatio Greenough to Henry Greenough, February 28, 1844, in Frances 
Boott Greenough, ed., Letters of Horatio Greenough to his Brother, Henry Greenough 
(Boston: Ticknor and Company, 1887), 169. 

32 Ann Leighton, American Gardens of the Nineteenth Century: "For Comfort and 
Affluence" (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1987), 140. 

33 R.A. Smith, Smith's Illustrated Guide to and Tlirough Laurel Hill Cemetery 
(Philadelphia, PA: Willis P. Hazard, 1852), i, 39-41. 

34 When the sculpture arrived in Boston in September of 1843, legs of the 
Orpheus were shattered and in pieces. The Trustees of the Athenaeum turned to 
Henry Dexter for assistance. Dexter pieced the shattered marble pieces together, 
filling in lost areas and ingeniously inserting iron bars for strength. Dexter's 
background as a blacksmith thus helped to save the Orpheus for posterity. 

35 Cornelius C. Vermeule III, "Greek Sculpture, Roman Sculpture and 
American Taste: The Mirror of Mount Auburn," Sweet Auburn, Newsletter of the 
Friends of Mount Auburn (Fall 1990), n.p. 

36 Much of the information on the Amos Binney Monument is from Lauretta 
Dimmick, "Thomas Crawford's Monument for Amos Binney in Mount Auburn 



146 Museum in the Garden 



Cemetery, 'A Work of Rare Merit/" Markers IX, Journal of the Association for 
Gravestone Studies (Worcester, MA: 1992), 158-195. 

37 Although Mary Ann Binney later remarried, she chose to be buried with her 
first husband under the monument she had commissioned. 

■ "Monumental Sculpture," New-York Commercial Advertiser (June 4, 1850), 2. 

39 "Monumental Sculpture," Boston Daily Evening Transcript (June 5, 1850), 2. 

40 R.L. Midgley, Sights in Boston and Suburbs, or Guide to the Stranger 
(Boston, 1856), 148. 

41 Among Crawford's plans were monuments to mark the grave of the English 
poet Percy Bysshe Shelley in the Protestant Cemetery in Rome and another 

to mark the Roman house where his mentor and friend Bertel Thorwardsen 
lived. Crawford also submitted a proposal to the Burd family for a funerary 
monument consisting of five figures in St. Stephen's Church in Philadelphia; 
that commission was awarded instead to sculptor Carl Steinhauser in Rome 
in 1850, the same year the Amos Binney Monument was installed (Dimmick, 
"Thomas Crawford's Monument,"159 and 189n2). Dimmick states that the 
recipient of the Burd family commission was "Wolgerbon Steinhausen"; 
however, the catalog of the Burd family papers, which are in the Special 
Collections Department at the University of Delaware Library, indicates the 
sculptor's name as "Carl Steinhauser." 

42 Mount Auburn Cemetery, "Trustees' Minutes," in "Proprietors' and 
Trustees Records," Vol.1 (Friday, September 29, 1843), 99, Mount Auburn 
Cemetery Archives. 

43 Charles P. Curtis and Henry N. Parker, "Trustees' Minutes," Vol.1 
(September 30, 1854), Mount Auburn Cemetery Archives. 

44 "Administrative Records-Correspondence Relating to Statuary and 
Monuments, 1845-1899," "Consent of Trustees to Vote Appropriating Money," 
September 4, 1854; Trustees' Minutes," I (August 7, 1854), 276, Mount Auburn 
Cemetery Archives. 

4:1 Jeffrey I. Richman, Brooklyn's Green-Wood Cemetery: New York's Buried 
Treasure (Lunenburg, Vermont: The Stinehour Press, 1998), 202-203. 

46 Sybil F. Crawford, "Imitation: A World of Cemetery Look-Alikes," AGS 
Quarterly: Bulletin of the Association for Gravestone Studies 27:3 (Summer 2003): 
8-11. 

47 Millard F. Rogers, Jr., Randoph Rogers: American Sculptor in Rome (Amherst: 
University of Massachusetts Press, 1971), 89-91. 

48 Ibid., 115, 153. 



Elise Madeleine Ciregna 147 



44 George E. Ellis, Memoir of Jacob Bigelow, M.D., LL.D. (Cambridge: John 
Wilson and Son, 1880), 61. 

50 As Blanche Linden and other cultural and landscape historians have shown, 
Olmsted was not America's first important landscape designer; others, such as 
Henry Dearborn, who was in large part responsible for the design of Mount 
Auburn, Forest Hills, and countless parks and cemeteries across the country, 
were highly influential predecessors to Olmsted. 

• ' This information has been compiled front SIRIS inventory records, catalog 
records (where available and accessible) of cemeteries, biographies and other 
works, and my own field and research notes. 

52 Philocosmos to Editor, Boston Daily Evening Transcript (January 7, 1842): 2. 

53 Dearinger, American Neoclassic Sculptors, 294-297 and 332-335. 

54 Lorado Taft, Tlie History of American Sculpture, 2nd ed. (New York: The 
Macmillan Company, 1924), 104. 



148 



Sleepy Hollow Cemetery 




[Frontispiece] Bronze bust of Emerson at about age fifty, 
created by Steven H. Maddock of New Mexico for 
The Ralph Waldo Emerson Society in celebration 
of the bicentennial of Emerson's birth year (2003). 



149 



"In the Palm of Nature's Hand": 

Ralph Waldo Emerson's Address at the 

Consecration of Sleepy Hollow Cemetery 

Introduced and edited by 
Ronald A. Bosco and Joel Myerson 



Sleepy Hollow. In this quiet valley, as in the palm of Nature's 
hand, we shall sleep well, when we have finished our day. 
What is the earth itself but a surface scooped into nooks and 
caves of slumber. . . . Nay, when I think of the mystery of 
life, its round of illusions, our ignorance of its beginning 
or its end, the speed of the changes of that glittering dream 
we call existence, — I think sometimes, that the vault of 
sky arching there upward, under which our busy being is 
whirled, is only a Sleepy Hollow, with path of suns, instead 
of footpaths, and milky ways, for truck-roads. 1 

-from the "Address" 

Sleepy Hollow Cemetery in Concord, Massachusetts, was consecrated 
on 29 September 1855 in a ceremony that included an "Address" bv the 
town's most distinguished citizen, Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882). 
Noteworthy for lyric prose that captured Sleepy Hollow's undulating 
and naturally romantic setting comprised of "scooped . . . nooks 
and caves of slumber," Emerson's "Address"— the complete text of 
which follows — was ideally suited to the occasion. One of the many 
cemeteries established on the outskirts of major American cities during 
the nineteenth century, Sleepy Hollow grew out of the garden cemetery 
movement that began in America with the founding of Mount Auburn 
Cemetery in nearby Cambridge in 1831, which was itself followed by the 
design and opening of, for instance, Green-Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn, 
New York; Albany Rural Cemetery in Menands, New York; and Rose 
Hill Cemetery outside of Atlanta, Georgia. 

In an account of the origins of Sleepy Hollow published in 1880, 
Concord historian George B. Bartlett reported that the parcel of land 



1 50 Sleepy Hollow Cemetery 



initially associated with the cemetery was purchased by the town in 
1855 from the heirs of Deacon Reuben Brown. The attraction of the 
property was, according to Bartlett, the "amphitheatre" in its center, 
"which had existed for years . . . and which had borne the name of 
Sleepy Hollow long before it was thought of as a place of burial." 2 After 
acquiring the property and determining its boundaries from surveys of 
Brown's land and the surrounding area done by Henry David Thoreau, 3 
the town hired landscape architects Horace William Shaler Cleveland 
and Robert Morris Copeland to design the cemetery. In short order, 
Cleveland and Copeland provided the town with a plan for Sleepy 
Hollow. Their plan was a textbook application of the theory governing 
garden cemetery design. Instead of "improving" the land by laying 
out a grid of regularized burial plots and roads, they preserved the 
natural contours and pathways of the landscape as a woodland retreat 
from everyday cares for the living and as a welcoming natural site of 
repose for the dead (Fig. 1). In her recent article on the founding of the 
cemetery, Leslie Perrin Wilson observes: "One only need walk through 
the 1855 section of Sleepy Hollow to understand intuitively that its 
design was intended to foster tranquility and private contemplation. . . . 
Concord's gem of a cemetery originated [in, especially,] Cleveland's 
transcendental sense of nature as a tonic for the soul and a catalyst for 
human sensibilities." 4 

Important as the overall theory of garden cemetery design was to the 
planning of Sleepy Hollow, two additional facts — one practical and the 
other emerging out of American intellectual and literary history — were 
also important to the establishment of the cemetery and the particular 
application of theory that guided its design. As a practical matter, the 
town needed a new cemetery. Founded in 1635, Concord remained a 
relatively small rural community well into the nineteenth century, but by 
the 1850s, the town's three principal cemeteries were either full or rapidly 
approaching capacity. The Old Hill Burying Ground (established ca. 
1670) that today can be seen to the right of St. Bernard's Catholic Church 
on Monument Square was virtually filled by 1800. Its replacement, 
New Hill Cemetery, which is behind and to the right of St. Bernard's, 
opened in 1823, but was quickly filling up. The Burial Ground on Main 
Street (established ca. 1690, also known as South Burying Place), which 
is today to the left of the Middlesex Savings Bank on Main Street and 
separated from it by Keyes Road, was already filled (Fig. 2). Anticipating 



Ronald A. Bosco and Joel Mverson 



151 



an expansion of population in the near future, Concord's officials knew 
that the town would soon need a new burial ground. The availability of 
Deacon Brown's property provided them with a ready answer to their 
concern, yet even this solution would prove short-lived. Although in his 
1855 "Address" Emerson celebrated Sleepy Hollow's "seclusion from the 
village in its immediate neighborhood, [which] had marked it to all the 
inhabitants as an easy retreat on a Sabbath day, or a summer twilight," 5 
by the late 1860s the town was already encroaching on the borders of this 
once-secluded site. Sleepy Hollow Cemetery had to be enlarged with 
the acquisition of additional land in 1869 — and again in 1932, 1954, 1959, 
1960, 1975, and 1998. 



1. Ralph Waldo Emerson 

2. Henry David Thoreau 

3. Nathaniel Hawthorne 

4. Louisa May Alcott 

5. Mrs. Daniel Lothrop 
(Margaret Sidney) 




Fig. 1. Map of eastern portion of Sleepy Hollow Cemetery as it 

appears today, showing Authors' Ridge graves (upper right) 
along Birch and Ridge paths. Courtesy, Concord Public Works. 



152 Sleepy Hollow Cemetery 



The other influence on the application of theory that guided the 
design of Sleepy Hollow Cemetery was the presence in Concord of 
Emerson himself. Concord was the Emerson family's ancestral home, 
and after moving to the town in 1834, when Emerson and his mother 
came to board in the Old Manse then occupied by his step-grandfather, 
the Rev. Dr. Ezra Ripley, Emerson considered himself a Concordian 
forever. Using language that seems to foreshadow his rise to fame as 
a leading influence on American Romanticism and its aesthetic theory 
and as the leading light of the Transcendentalist movement that began 
in 1836 and quickly became identified with him and with Concord, 
Emerson wrote in his journal, 

Concord, 15 November 1834. Hail to the quiet fields of my 
fathers! Not wholly unattended by supernatural friendship 
& favor let me come hither. Bless my purposes as they are 
simple & virtuous. . . . Henceforth I design not to utter any 
speech, poem, or book that is not entirely & peculiarly my 
work. . . . 

Respect a man! assuredly, but in general only as the 
potential God & therefore richly deserving of your pity[,] 
your tears. Now he is only a scrap, an ort, an end & in his 
actual being no more worthy of your veneration than the 
poor lunatic. But the simplest person who in his integrity 
worships God becomes God: at least no optics of human 
mind can detect the line where man the effect ceases, & God 
the Cause begins. 6 

Beginning in 1834, when he moved into the Manse, Emerson wrote 
and lectured constantly, crafting ever so slowly the prose out of which he 
would announce the philosophy that would be "entirely & peculiarly" 
his own. Soon, he had settled into his own Concord home, "Bush," 
which he purchased in 1835 and renovated for his family. Ultimately, the 
Emerson household would include not only Lydia Jackson, his future 
second wife (called "Lidian" after her marriage), and their children, but 
also his mother Ruth Haskins Emerson, his itinerant aunt Mary Moody 
Emerson, his brother Charles Chauncy Emerson, and, finally, Elizabeth 
Sherman Hoar, to whom Charles was engaged. 



Ronald A. Bosco and Joel Myerson 



153 




! 



Fig. 2. Gravestone of Rachel Buss (d. 1743), a typical example of 

the gravestones in the Main Street Burial Ground, Concord, MA. 

Attributed to Jonathan Worster (1707-1754). 



154 Sleepy Hollow Cemetery 



Emerson's labors culminated in Nature, which, published on 9 Sep- 
tember 1836, is his sweeping declaration of the divinity of human 
life, the relatedness of all things in the universe, and the universality 
of thought. Having assimilated much from his readings in Platonic 
thought, Eastern philosophy and religion, and natural history, Emerson 
proclaimed nature the resource through which individuals could restore 
"original and eternal beauty" to their world and achieve the redemption 
of their souls. 7 In its appeal to intuition and the senses, its conviction that 
language, like any other material fact, is symbolic of a higher spiritual 
reality that governs the universe, and its song of the "Orphic poet" 
which reminded modern man that he is a figure who before time began 
"was permeated and dissolved by spirit" and "filled nature with his 
overflowing currents," Nature impressed many early readers as a highly 
progressive text. 8 Nature also made Emerson's case for the importance 
of the intuitive capacity of the observers of nature, and the observers' 
ability to move from the factual to the metaphoric or relational meaning 
of objects, events, persons, and ideas as they encountered them in nature. 
Intuition enabled the observer to see through the ambiguity or remoteness 
of words and things to the unifying source of all in the universe: thought. 
In Nature, to put the matter simply, Emerson announced a version of 
philosophical organicism that informed American literature, aesthetics, 
and theories of mind for the remainder of the nineteenth century. 

Cleveland's and Copeland's design for Sleepy Hollow echoes 
developing Romantic ideals of the time, especially the concept of 
organicism that is at the core of Emerson's Nature. 9 In his "Address" 
at the consecration of Sleepy Hollow delivered nearly twenty years 
after Nature first appeared in print, Emerson acknowledged his 
influence on and agreement with the practices of these and other 
landscape architects: 

Modern taste has shown that there is no ornament, no 
architecture, alone so sumptuous as well-disposed woods 
and waters, where art has been employed only to remove 
superfluities, and bring out the natural advantages. In 
cultivated grounds, one sees the picturesque and opulent 
effect of the familiar shrubs, — barberry, lilac, privet, and 
thorns, — when they are disposed in masses, and in large 
spaces. . . . 



Ronald A. Bosco and Joel Mverson 155 



The ground [of Sleepy Hollow] has the peaceful character 
that belongs to this town; — no lofty crags, no glittering 
cataracts; — but I hold that every part of nature is handsome, 
when not deformed by bad art. Bleak sea-rocks, and sea- 
downs, and blasted heaths, have their own beauty. . . . 
The morning, the moonlight, the spring day, are magical 
painters, and can glorify a meadow or a rock. 10 



Emerson was a member of the town committee that organized the 
Sleepy Hollow consecration service and requested that he deliver an 
address. Regardless of the role he played in that particular decision 
by the committee, Emerson was really the only citizen of Concord to 
whom the request could have been made. By 1855, he was the town's 
most visible resident, having achieved a reputation as a lecturer, author, 
and intellectual presence throughout America and the British Isles 
and become the person that public figures from across America and 
throughout the world came to visit in Concord. 

From the moment he settled in Concord, Emerson was a genuine 
citizen of the town, and it is fair to say that of all the public honors 
bestowed upon him, he relished none more than his identification with 
Concord. He routinely offered his services free of charge as a speaker at 
the Concord Lyceum, where he delivered exactly one hundred lectures 
over the course of his career, and as early as 1835, when he was selected 
to deliver the discourse on 12 September to commemorate the second 
centennial anniversary of the incorporation of the town, it was clear that 
his voice would be depended upon to help Concord celebrate events 
such as this one or to guide the minds and consciences of his fellow 
Concordians through dark days such as those that accompanied the 
Civil War. Indeed, between 1835 and the last years of his life, Emerson 
seems to have played a significant role in every major public event held 
in Concord. In 1837, for instance, the town sang his recently completed 
"Concord Hymn" during its Fourth of July celebrations; in 1867, he 
delivered the address on 19 April at the dedication of the Soldier's 
Monument, the town's memorial to its forty-four citizens who died in 
the Civil War; and in 1873, he delivered the address on 1 October at the 
opening of the Concord Free Public Library. In a lecture that he delivered 
only once — at the Concord Lyceum on 2 December 1857 — Emerson 
repaid the esteem and kindness that his townsmen routinely directed 



156 Sleepy Hollow Cemetery 



toward him. With a type of Yankee charm for which he was admired in 
Concord, he spoke of the bargain he got when he purchased "Bush" and 
the lands around it: 



When I bought my farm, I did not know what a bargain 
I had in the bluebirds, bobolinks, and thrushes, which were 
not charged in the bill: as little did I guess what sublime 
mornings and sunsets I was buying, — what reaches of 
landscape, and what fields. . . . 

Still less did I know what good and true neighbors I was 
buying, men of thought and virtue, some of them now 
known the country through, for their learning, or subtlety, 
or active, or patriotic power, but whom I had the pleasure of 
knowing long before the country did; and of other men, not 
known widely, but known at home, — farmers, — not doctors 
of laws, but doctors of land, skilled in turning a swamp or a 
sand-bank into a fruitful field, and, where witch-grass and 
nettles grew, causing a forest of apple trees, or miles of corn 
and rye to thrive." 



Part of Emerson's responsibilities on the town committee that or- 
ganized events for the consecration of Sleepy Hollow was to commission 
an appropriate hymn that could be sung during the service. While 
working on his own "Address," Emerson arranged for Ellery Charming 
to provide a suitably romantic and uplifting poem that could be sung 
by the local choir; however, when it turned out that Channing's poem 
simply could not be sung, Emerson approached Franklin B. Sanborn and 
asked him to compose an ode for the occasion. On 29 September, the 
exercises began at two o'clock in the afternoon, opening with a prayer by 
Concord minister Barzillai Frost, which was then followed by the singing 
of Sanborn's "Ode on the Consecration of Sleepy Hollow Cemetery." In 
his "Ode," Sanborn sentimentalized death and the Sleepy Hollow setting 
that he had been invited to celebrate: 



... To holy sorrow — solemn joy, 

We consecrate the place 
Where soon shall sleep the maid and boy, 



Ronald A. Bosco and Joel Myerson 157 



The father and his race, 
The mother with her tender babe, 
The venerable face. 

These waving woods — these valleys low 

Between these tufted knolls, 
Year after year shall dearer grow 

To many loving souls; 
And flowers be sweeter here than blow 

Elsewhere between the pole. 

For deathless Love and blessed Grief 
Shall guard these wooded aisles, 

When either Autumn casts the leaf, 
Or blushing Summer smiles, 

Or Winter whitens o'er the land, 
Or Spring the buds uncoils. 

At the conclusion of the singing of Sanborn's "Ode," Emerson 
delivered his "Address," which was followed by a benediction offered 
by L. H. Angier. During the exercises, Channing's "Sleepy Hollow" was 
recited. Although it definitely lacked the lyricism of either Emerson's 
"Address" or Sanborn's "Ode," Channing's song, as the following 
except suggests, drew the audience's attention to the influence of the 
landscape, where 

. . . the green pines delight, the aspen droops 
Along the modest pathways, and those fair 
Pale asters of the season spread their plumes 
Around this field, fit garden for our tombs. 

As a fitting memento of the occasion, broadside programs were 
distributed to those who attended the consecration of Sleepy Hollow; 
printed on both sides, they included the complete texts of Sanborn's 
"Ode" and Channing's "Sleepy Hollow" (Fig. 3). 12 

Explaining the virtue of arranging cemeteries such as Sleepy Hollow 
into park-like settings, Emerson remarked in his "Address" that they 



158 



Sleepy Hollow Cemetery 






m 



; SLEEPY HOLLOW CEMETERY, 

CONCORD, SEPT. 29, 1855, 2, P. M. 



sailsHHSB, 3? f/Hts flflBJaaia, 



BENEDICTION. BY EOT. L. H. ANGIEB. K& 




Hem the green pie 
Aloog the mode 






Ami -hah thou pull 
Slow -•■ ■ 1 ■ - = i o' 


se to hear 
r thy heat 
poio, « fe 


ouic funeral hul 

in this eulru pie 
eri>lrkncll. 


It sujs, Go. pilgrii 




thou nasi h«fo 


Louru. from the t< 
To-morrow, tlm 






Prison thy .oul fro 
Nor these pule 


l'°«"nor' 


his still Geld de 


Kitther to thou ns 
Where a no'or-s 

Eternal, end the in 
Of unspent holi 

Forgot man's bide 


' '::. 


leTelea,"- 



Fig. 3. Broadside "Order of Exercises," Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, 

Concord, September 29, 1855. Courtesy of the Joel Myerson 

Collection of Nineteenth-Century American Literature, 

University of South Carolina. 



Ronald A. Bosco and Joel Myerson 159 



provided living Americans with a place of refuge from their "anxious, 
over-driven" everyday lives, a sense of national identity to rival 
Europe's widely touted cultural superiority, and a natural environment 
that promoted friendship and, perhaps, that brand of Transcendental 
conversation which, as a form of elevated exchange, momentarily 
relieved attentive talkers of the sting of their own mortality: 

What work of man will compare with the plantation of a 
park? It dignifies life; it is a seat for friendship, counsel, taste, 
and religion. I do not wonder that they are the chosen badge 
and point-of-pride of European nobility. But how much more 
are they needed by us, anxious, over-driven Americans, to 
staunch and appease that fury of temperament which our 
climate bestows! 13 

Emerson himself often enjoyed Sleepy Hollow's peaceful spaces, as 
Kate Douglas (Smith) Wiggin, the author of Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm 
(1903), has recorded. Brought to Concord by Elizabeth Palmer Peabody 
in the summer of 1880 to attend meetings of the Concord School of 
Philosophy, she made the rounds of Concord society under Peabody' s 
direction. Then known as Kate D. Smith, Wiggin often spent afternoons 
wandering through Sleepy Hollow in the company of Peabody and 
other Concord luminaries. In her "Personal Recollections of Emerson," 
which appeared just after Emerson's death in 1882, she recounted one 
such afternoon during which Peabody and she were joined by Bronson 
Alcott, Ellery Charming, and Emerson: 

On a summer day, two years ago, I walked through Sleepy 
Hollow burying-ground (it is an anachronism to call it a 
cemetery), in company with Mr. Emerson, Mr. Alcott, Mr. 
Charming, and Miss Elizabeth Peabody. 

I can recall it as if it were yesterday: the walk in quiet 
mood from the hillside chapel, through fragrant orchards, 
to the ridge overlooking historic fields . . . 

We wandered slowly among the graves of the illustrious 
dead, while each of the honored living related happy 
anecdotes of the friends passed over and yonder. . . . 

I was tired, I remember, for had I not just been precipitated 



160 



Sleepy Hollow Cemetery 



into the full doctrine of platonic philosophy and psychology, 
cosmologic and theologic outlines, and the Daemon of 
Socrates, that morning? and I sank on the grassy turf beside 
the marble stone designed 

"By its durability 
To perpetuate the memory, 

And by its color 

to signify the moral character 

Of 

Miss Abigail Dudley." 

I looked up. The day was warm, and they had all bared 
their heads to the breeze. Mr. Charming had helped Miss 
Peabody to a seat, while Mr. Emerson and Mr. Alcott rested 
at the foot of a great, leafy oak tree. 

I never shall forget it: the sight of the four aged, benignant 
heads ... on which the mellow August sunshine poured its 
flood of light. They looked at each other and then at me, and 
suddenly the same thought, born perhaps of the place and 




Fig. 4. Path to Authors' Ridge, Sleepy Hollow Cemetery. 



Ronald A. Bosco and Joel Myerson 



161 




Fig. 5. Emerson's large rose quartz gravemarker in the 

Emerson family plot on Authors' Ridge. Photo ca. 1895, 

courtesy of the Concord Free Public Library. 



162 



Sleepy Hollow Cemetery 




Fig. 6. Bronze plaque on Emerson's marker. Photo by Jim Fannin. 



the glance, flashed into each brain at the same moment, and 
Mr. Emerson, in his low, hesitating voice, said: 

"We shall leave you behind, child." 

And Mr. Channing added, with a half-playful sadness: 

"Shall we take a message for you yonder?" 

"Yes," cried I, with eyes full of tears. "Say that the beauty 

and sacredness and glory of old age never seemed to youth 

so divinely honorable as at this moment." 14 



Today, along with the Old North Bridge, Walden Pond, Orchard 
House (the home of the Alcotts), and Emerson's "Bush," Sleepy Hollow 
Cemetery is one of the sites most favored by visitors to Concord, but 
among these and other local sites of interest, Sleepy Hollow is unrivalled 
as a truly romantic landscape. Across the seasons it still retains the 
serene natural ambiance that Emerson so prized and that Cleveland 



Ronald A. Bosco and Joel Mverson 



163 



and Copeland so successfully preserved. Every spring, as the winter 
ice and snow recede, the grounds burst forth with grand splashes of 
color as lilacs, rhododendrons, azaleas, dogwoods, and other flowering 
shrubs and trees bloom; every summer, the leaves of countless trees 
of every description — many dating back to the period before Sleepy 
Hollow became a cemetery — provide shade for those who stroll, jog, or 
sit and meditate along the paths once frequented by Kate D. Smith and 
her companions; and every autumn, Sleepy Hollow's trees put on the 
spectacular display of color that Thoreau never tired of describing in his 
journal, for he thought such displays transformed a landscape such as 
Sleepy Hollow's into "a faery-place" that served as an emblem of "the 
immortality of the soul." 15 

The section of the cemetery just above the rim of the "amphitheatre" 
where Emerson delivered his "Address" is now known as Authors' 
Ridge, and it is there that he is buried in a large plot with members of 
his extended family. The Emersons are certainly not alone on the Ridge; 
beside the path that eventually leads to their graves are those of Henry 




Fig. 7. Thoreau family plot, Authors' Ridge, Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, 
with Henry Thoreau's small individual marker to the far left. 



164 Sleepy Hollow Cemetery 



Fhoreau, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Ellery Charming, Bronson Alcott and 
Louisa May Alcott, Harriet Mulford Lothrop ("Margaret Sidney," author 
of the children's book, Five Little Peppers and How Tliey Grew [1881]), and 
members of their respective families. Nearby are the graves of other once 
prominent citizens of Concord: Ephraim Wales Bull, the inventor of the 
Concord grape; Edward Waldo Emerson, Emerson's son and editor; 
Daniel Chester French, the sculptor whose works include the statue of 
the Minute Man in Concord, which has Emerson's "Concord Hymn" 
inscribed on its base, and the seated statue of Abraham Lincoln at the 
Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.; Samuel Hoar, his son Ebenezer 
Rockwood Hoar, and his son Sherman Hoar — all statesmen of distinction; 
John Shepard Keyes, Concord's Superintendent of Grounds during the 
laying out of Sleepy Hollow Cemetery; Elizabeth Palmer Peabody; and 
Franklin B. Sanborn. 16 Indeed, the Sleepy Hollow that visitors from all 
over the world see today is very much the one Emerson prophesied as 
he and his townsmen came together in 1855 to consecrate these grounds: 
"When [the] acorns that are falling at our feet are oaks overshadowing 
our children in a remote century, this mute green bank will be full of 
history: the good, the wise, and the great, will have left their names and 
virtues on the trees; heroes, poets, beauties, sanctities, and benefactors, 
will have made the air tuneable and articulate." 17 



Emerson's "Address to the Inhabitants of Concord, 
at the Consecration of Sleepy Hollow, 

29 September 1855" 

Citizens and Friends, 

The Committee to whom was confided the charge of carrying out the wishes 
of the Town in opening the cemetery, having proceeded so far as to enclose the 
ground, and cut the necessary roads, and having laid off as many lots as are likely 
to be wanted at present, have thought it fit to call the inhabitants together, to 
show you the ground, now that the new avenues make its advantages appear: and 
to put it at your disposition. They have thought that the taking possession of 
this field ought to be marked by a public meeting, and religious rites: and they 
have requested me to say a few words, which the serious and tender occasion 
inspires. And this concourse of friendly company assures me that they have 
rightly interpreted your wishes. 



Ronald A. Bosco and Joel Myerson 



165 



It is the credence of men which, more than race or climate, makes their 
manners and customs; and the history of religion may be read in the forms of 
sepulture. There never was a time when the doctrine of a future life was not held. 
Morals must be enjoined, but among rude men they were rudely figured under 
the form of dogs and whips, or, of an easier and more plentiful life, after death. 
And as it was impossible for the savage to detach the life of the soul from the 
body in his conception, he took great care for his body. 

Nature secures the performance of every necessary function by overloading 
the tendency. Thus, the whole life of man, in the first ages, was ponderously 
determined on death. And, as you know, the polity of the Egyptians, the by- 
laws of towns and of streets and houses, respected burial. It made every man 
an undertaker; every palace, a door to a pyramid: every king or rich man was 
a pjramidaire: a successful general was the lucky candidate for an obelisk. The 
labor of races was spent on the excavation of catacombs. The chief end of man 
being to be buried well, the arts most in request were masonry and embalming, 
to give an immortality to the proper body. 




Fig. 8. Henry Thoreau's grave with notes, stones, flowers, 
and other offerings left by visitors (July 1995). 



166 



Sleepy Hollow Cemetery 




Fig. 9. Louisa May Alcott's grave with balloons and other visitor 

offerings, Alcott family plot, Author's Ridge (July 1995). The 

handwritten note leaning against the stone reads, "I'm your 

number 1 fan / C. A.D. / My favorite book of yours is Little Women . 



The Greek, with his perfect senses and perceptions, had quite another 
philosophy. He loved life, and delighted in beauty. He set his wit and taste, like 
elastic gas, under these mountains of granite, and lifted them. He drove away the 
embalmers: he burnt his body: he built no more of these doleful mountainous 
tombs: he adorned death: brought wreaths of parsley and laurel: made it bright 
with games of strength and skill, and with chariot races. Nothing can excel the 
beauty of his sarcophagus. He carried his arts to Rome, and built his beautiful 
tombs at Pompeii. The poet Shelley says, "These white marble cells so delicately 
carved, contrasted so strongly with the plain dwelling houses, that they seemed 
not so much tombs, as voluptuous chambers for immortal spirits." And the 
modern Greeks, in their Romaic songs, ask that they may be buried where the 
sun can see them, and that a little window may be cut in the sepulchre from which 
the swallow might be seen when he comes back in the spring. 

Christianity brought a new wisdom. But learning depends on the learner; no 



Ronald A. Bosco and Joel Myerson 



167 



more truth can be conveyed, than the popular mind can bear. And the barbarians 
that received the cross, took the doctrine of the resurrection as the Egyptians had 
done before. It was an affair of the body, and narrowed again by the fury of sect, 
so that grounds were sprinkled with holy water to receive only orthodox dust; 
and, to keep the body still more sacredly safe for resurrection, it was put into the 
walls of a church: and the churches of Europe are really sepulchres. Meantime, 
the true disciples saw through the letter the doctrine of eternity, which dissolved 
the poor corpse and nature also, and gave grandeur to the passing hour. They 
wished their memory to be sweet, that holiness should perfume their graves. 

In these times, we see the defects of our old theology, its inferiority to our 
habit of thought. Men go up and down; science is popularized; the irresistible 
democracy — shall I call it? — of chemistry, of vegetation, which recomposes for 
new life every decomposing particle, — the race never dying, the individual never 
spared, — has impressed on the mind of the age the futility of these old arts of 
preserving. We give our earth to earth. We will not jealously guard a few atoms 
under immense marbles, selfishly and impossibly sequestering it from the vast 




Fig. 10. Headstone and f ootstone marking the grave of 
Nathaniel Hawthorne in the Hawthorne family plot, Authors' Ridge. 



Sleepy Hollow Cemetery 



circulations of nature, but, at the same time, fully admitting the divine hope and 
love which belong to our nature, and wishing to make one spot tender to our 
children, who shall come hither in the next century to read the dates of these 
lives adorned also. 

Our people, accepting this lesson from science, yet touched by the tenderness 
which Christianity breathes, have found a mean in the consecration of gardens. 
A simultaneous movement has in a hundred cities and towns, in this country, 
selected some convenient piece of undulating ground, with pleasant woods and 
waters; every family chooses its own clump of trees; and we lay the corpse in these 
leafy colonnades. 

A grove of trees, — what benefit or ornament is so fair and great? They make 
the landscape. They keep the earth habitable: their roots run down, like cattle, to 
the watercourses, their heads expand to feed the atmosphere. The life of a tree 
is a hundred and a thousand years; its decays ornamental; its repairs self-made: 
they grow when we sleep, they grew when we were unborn. Man is a moth among 
these longevities. He plants for the next millennium. Shadows haunt them; all 
that ever lived about them, clings to them. You can almost see behind these pines 
the Indian with bow and arrow lurking yet, exploring the traces of the old trail. 

Modern taste has shown that there is no ornament, no architecture, alone 
so sumptuous as well-disposed woods and waters, where art has been employed 
only to remove superfluities, and bring out the natural advantages. In cultivated 
grounds, one sees the picturesque and opulent effect of the familiar shrubs, — 
barberry, lilac, privet, and thorns, — when they are disposed in masses, and m 
large spaces. What work of man will compare with the plantation of a park? 
It dignifies life; it is a seat for friendship, counsel, taste, and religion. I do not 
wonder that they are the chosen badge and point-of-pride of European nobility. 
But how much more are they needed by us, anxious, over-driven Americans, to 
staunch and appease that fury of temperament which our climate bestows! 

This tract fortunately lies adjoining to the Agricultural Society's ground, to 
the New Burial Ground, to the Court-House, and to the Town House, making 
together a large block of public ground permanent property of the Town and 
County, — all the ornaments of either, adding so much value to all. This spot for 
twenty years has borne the name of Sleepy Hollow. Its seclusion from the village 
in its immediate neighborhood, had marked it to all the inhabitants as an easy 
retreat on a Sabbath day, or a summer twilight; and it was inevitably chosen by 
them, when the design of a new cemetery was broached, if it did not suggest the 
design, as the fit place for their final repose. 



Ronald A. Bosco and Joel Mycrson 



169 




Fig. 11. Emerson's rose quartz gravemarker as it appears today, 

flanked on the left by the grave of his second wife (d. 1892) and on 

the right by the grave of his daughter Ellen (d. 1909). 



In all the multitude of woodlands and hillsides, which, within a few years, 
have been laid out with a similar design, I have not known one so fitly named. 
Sleepy Hollow. In this quiet valley, as in the palm of Nature's hand, we shall 
sleep well, when we have finished our day. What is the earth itself but a surface 
scooped into nooks and caves of slumber, — according to the Eastern fable, a 
bridge full of holes, into one or other of which, all the passengers sink to silence. 
Nay, when I think of the mystery of life, its round of illusions, our ignorance of 
its beginning or its end, the speed of the changes of that glittering dream we call 
existence, — I think sometimes, that the vault of sky arching there upward, under 
which our busy being is whirled, is only a Sleepy Hollow, with path of suns, 
instead of footpaths, and milky ways, for truck-roads. 

The ground has the peaceful character that belongs to this town; — no lofty 
crags, no glittering cataracts; — but I hold that every part of nature is handsome, 
when not deformed by bad art. Bleak sea-rocks, and sea-downs, and blasted 
heaths, have their own beauty; and, though we make much ado in our praises 
of Italy, or the Andes, Nature makes not so much difference. The morning, the 
moonlight, the spring day, are magical painters, and can glorify a meadow or a 
rock. 



1 70 Sleepy Hollow Cemetery 



But, we must look forward also, and make ourselves a thousand years old; 
and when these acorns that are falling at our feet are oaks overshadowing our 
children in a remote century, this mute green bank will be full of history: the 
good, the wise, and the great, will have left their names and virtues on the trees; 
heroes, poets, beauties, sanctities, and benefactors, will have made the air tuneable 
and articulate. 

I suppose, all of us will readily admit the value of parks and cultivated 
grounds to the pleasure and education of the people; but I have heard it said 
here, that we would gladly spend for a park for the living, but not for a cemetery; 
a garden for the living, a home for thought and friendship. Certainly, the living 
need it more than the dead; indeed, to speak precisely, it is given to the dead for 
the reaction of benefit on the living. 

But if the direct regard to the living shall be thought expedient, that is also 
in your power. This ground is happily so divided by nature, as to admit of this 
relation between the Past and the Present. In the valley where we stand, will be 
the monuments. On the other side of the ridge, towards the town, a portion 
of the land is in full view of the cheer of the village, and is out of sight of the 
monuments; it admits of being reserved for secular purposes; for games, — not 
such as the Greeks honored the dead with, — but for games of education; the 
distribution of school-prizes; the meeting of teachers; patriotic eloquence; 
the utterance of the principles of national liberty; to private social, literary, or 
religious fraternities. There we may establish that most agreeable of all museums, 
and agreeable to the temper of our times, — an arboretum, — wherein may be 
planted by the taste of every citizen, one tree, with its name recorded in a book; 
every tree that is native to Massachusetts, or will grow in it; so that every child 
may be shown growing side by side the eleven oaks of Massachusetts; and the 
twenty willows and the beech which we have allowed to die out of the eastern 
counties; and, here, the vast firs of California and Oregon. 18 And hither shall 
repair to this modest spot of God's earth, every sweet and friendly influence, 
and the beautiful night and beautiful day will come in turn to sit upon the grass. 
Our use will not displace the old tenants. The well-beloved birds will not sing 
one song the less; the high-holding woodpecker, the meadowlark, the oriole, the 
robin, the purple finch, the bluebird, the thrush and the red-eyed warbler, the 
heron and the bittern will find out the hospitality and protection from the gun, 
of this asylum, and will seek the waters of the meadow; and in the grass, and by 
the pond, the locust, the cricket, and the hyla, shall shrilly play. 



Ronald A. Bosco and Joel Myerson 1 7 1 



We shall bring hither the body of the dead, but how shall we catch the 
escaped soul? Here will burn for us, as the oath of God, the sublime belief. I have 
heard, that death takes us away from ill things, not from good. I have heard, that 
when we pronounce the name of man, we pronounce the belief of immortality. 
All great natures delight in stability. All great men find eternity affirmed in the 
promise of their faculties. Why is the fable of the Wandering Jew agreeable to 
men, but because they want more time and land to execute their thoughts in? 19 
Life is not long enough for art, nor long enough for friendship. The evidence 
from intellect is as valid as the evidence from love. The being that can share a 
thought and feeling so sublime as confidence in truth, is no mushroom. Our 
dissatisfaction with any other solution is the blazing evidence of immortality. 

"The air is full of men." Schiller said, "Thoughtest thou, that this infinite 
Round is the sepulchre of thine ancestors? that the wind brings thee — that the 
perfumes of the lindens bring thee, perhaps, the spent force of Arminius, 20 to thy 
nostril; that thou, in the refreshing fountain, perhaps tastest the balsamed bones 
of our great Henry?" -1 



1 72 Sleepy Hollow Cemetery 

NOTES 

All photographs not attributed in captions are by Gary Collison. 

1 Ralph Waldo Emerson, "Address to the Inhabitants of Concord, at the 
Consecration of Sleepy Hollow, 29 September 1855," in The Later Lectures 
of Ralph Waldo Emerson, 1843-1871, ed. Ronald A. Bosco and Joel Myerson, 
2 vols. (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2001), 2:33. The complete text 
of Emerson's "Address" as it appears in Later Lectures, 2:30-34, follows; it is 
reprinted here with the permission of the University of Georgia Press. Emerson 
left the "Address" untitled; the title used in Later Lectures was supplied by the 
editors. For information regarding the practices followed in the preparation of 
this edition, see "Historical and Textual Introduction, [Part 2]," Later Lectures, 
l:xxxii-lxii. A version of the "Address" arranged by Emerson's son and editor 
appeared in The Complete Works of Ralph Waldo Emerson, ed. Edward Waldo 
Emerson, 12 vols. (Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 
1903-1904), 11:429-36. At the outset, we should like to acknowledge Leslie 
Perrin Wilson, curator of the Concord Free Public Library Special Collections, 
for sharing with us her wealth of Concord lore and her knowledge of Sleepy 
Hollow's history. 

2 Tlie Concord Guide Book, ed. George Bradford]. Bartlett (Boston: D. Lothrop 
and Company, [1880]), p. 18. 

3 The originals of Thoreau's surveys are in the Concord Free Public Library 
Special Collections. For "Plan of Sleepy Hollow from Plans Made by Cyrus 
Hubbard in 1836 & 1852 and the New Road Added by Henry D. Thoreau Feb. 
1, 1854," see http://www.concordnet.Org/library//scollect/Thoreau_surveys/ 
7j.htm on the Concord Free Public Library web site. 

4 Leslie Perrin Wilson, "H. W. S. Cleveland provided vision for Concord's 
Sleepy Hollow," TJie Concord Journal, 21 November 2002, 14. Quoting from the 
Concord town report for 1855-56, Wilson notes that Cleveland and Copeland 
were paid $75 for their services. 

5 Later Lectures, 2:32-33. 

6 The Journals and Miscellaneous Notebooks of Ralph Waldo Emerson, ed. William 
H. Gilman, Ralph H. Orth, et al., 16 vols. (Cambridge and London: Harvard 
University Press, 1960-1982), 4:335. 

7 Nature, in Tlie Collected Works of Ralph Waldo Emerson, ed. Robert E. Spiller, 
Joseph Slater, Douglas Emory Wilson, et al., 5 vols, to date (Cambridge: 
Harvard University Press, 1971 — ), 1:43. 

8 Nature, 1:42. 

9 In "Sleepy Hollow Cemetery: Philosophy Made Substance," Daniel J. 
Nadenicek takes this argument even further, asserting that Emerson's 
philosophy exerted a direct influence on Cleveland and Copeland's design for 
the cemetery; see Emerson Society Papers 5 (Spring 1994): 1-2. 

10 Later Lectures, 2:32-33. 

" "Country Walks (Concord)," Later Lectures, 2:37. 



Ronald A. Bosco and Joel Myerson 1 73 



12 Broadsides of the program for the consecration of Sleepy Hollow are 
preserved in the Concord Free Public Library Special Collections, the Joel 
Myerson Collection of Nineteenth-Century American Literature at the 
University of South Carolina, and the Houghton Library at Harvard University; 
in the Houghton Library, see *AC85.Em345.Z855s. Emerson evidently liked 
Sanborn's "Ode" and Channing's poem. He printed both in Parnassus, ed. 
Ralph Waldo Emerson (Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin, 1874), 

462 and 460 respectively; the excerpts from both poems reprinted here are 
taken from Parnassus. For more on the occasion, see Sanborn, "The Sleepy 
Hollow Cemetery — Old Graves," Concord Minute Man, 24 November 1915, 
reprinted in Sixty Years of Concord, ed. Kenneth Walter Cameron (Hartford, CT.: 
Transcendental Books, 1987), 14-15. 

13 Later Lectures, 2:32. 

14 Kate D. Smith, "Personal Reminiscences of Emerson," Californian 5 (June 
1882): 491-92; Smith's later, more elaborately developed version of this 
anecdote, which first appeared in Kate Douglas Wiggin, My Garden of Memory: 
An Autobiography (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1923), 148-54, is reprinted 

in Emerson in His Own Time: A Biographical Chronicle of His Life, Taken from 
Recollections, Interviews, and Memoirs by Family, Friends, and Associates, ed. 
Ronald A. Bosco and Joel Myerson (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 2003), 
242-47. 

15 See the entry for 9 October 1851, in Tlie Writings of Henry David Thoreau: 
Journal, ed. John C. Broderick, et al., 7 vols, to date (Princeton: Princeton 
University Press, 1981 -), 4:135-36. 

16 There are even a few surprises to be found among Sleepy Hollow's graves. 
For example, James Underwood Crockett, the horticulturist and host of the 
once-popular "Crockett's Victory Garden" show, is buried in the cemetery, as is 
Anne Rainsford Bush, the first woman licensed (in 1900) to drive an automobile 
in America. 

17 Later Lectures, 2:33. 

18 As documented in the Concord town Reports [Concord: Benjamin Tolman, 
1858], p. 16, on 19 April 1856, the town held a "tree bee," during which "more 
than a hundred trees were brought and set out by voluntary contribution," in 
addition to the "seven hundred trees of various kinds" that had already been 
planted. Additionally, the "ladies of the town" raised $116.75 by sponsoring "a 
Fourth of July breakfast and floral exhibition at the Town Hall" for the purpose 
of "beautifying the Cemetery." 

19 The legend of the Wandering Jew, which dates from medieval times, 
concerns a man who gave Jesus a blow on the way to the Crucifixion, whom 
Jesus then cursed to wander the earth until He returned. 

20 Jacobus Arminius (ca. 1559-1609), Dutch theologian opposed to Calvin and 
an important precursor of Unitarian liberalism. 

21 Friedrich Schiller, "Der Spaziergang unter den Linden" (1782), 
http://gutenberg.spiegel.de/schiller/spazlind/spazlind.htm . 



1 74 Subject Index, Markers I-XX 

Subject Index for Markers I-XX 

Compiled by Gary Collison 



[EXPLANATORY NOTE: This subject index to the twenty earlier volumes is 
designed to be brief and usable but still relatively comprehensive. The general 
rule has been to include an article under a state heading if it includes a discussion, 
listing, or a photograph of one or more gravemarkers in the state. Studies of 
the work of individual stonecarvers are listed under the state or states in which 
the carver's work appears. For the first time, it will be easy for researchers 
interested in the gravestones of Nova Scotia or Rhode Island, for example, to 
discover that Jim Blachowicz and Vincent Luti's article, "William Coye: Father 
of the Plymouth Carving Tradition," contains information about Coye stones in 
those areas. Anyone perusing the entries for Georgia, Iowa, Vermont, or any 
of nine other states will discover that Angelika Kriiger-Kahloula's pathbreaking 
article, "Tributes in Stone and Lapidary Lapses: Commemorating Black People 
in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century America," discusses examples of African 
American gravemarkers or memorial notices in those states. The index reveals 
many similar unexpected connections. Carvers' names do not appear unless 
given in the title of an article. With the exception of Boston, no names of cities are 
used as subject headings. Copies of volumes VI-XX are available from the AGS 
office. Note that some of the earlier volumes are in short supply. See the Markers 
tables of contents at the webpage, www.gravestonestudies.org.] 



AFRICA 

"T Never Regretted Coming to Africa': The Story of Harriet Ruggles Loomis' 

Gravestone," Laurel K. Gabel, XVI: 140-173 
"Tributes in Stone and Lapidary Lapses: Commemorating Black People in 

Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century America," Angelika Krtiger-Kahloula, 

VI: 32-100 

AFRICAN AMERICAN 

"Afro- American Gravemarkers in North Carolina," M. Ruth Little, VI: 102-134 

"Under Grave Conditions: African- American Signs of Life and Death in North 

Florida," Robin Franklin Nigh, XIV: 158-189 
"A Modern Gravestone Maker: Some Lessons for Gravestone Historians," 

Barbara Rotundo, XIV: 86-109 
"Slavery in Colonial Massachusetts as Seen Through Selected Gravestones," 

Tom and Brenda Malloy, XI: 112-141 
"Tributes in Stone and Lapidary Lapses: Commemorating Black People in 

Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century America," Angelika Kriiger-Kahloula, 

VI: 32-100 

ALABAMA 

"Rural Southern Gravestones: Sacred Artifacts in the Upland South Folk 
Cemetery," Gregory Jeane, IV: 55-84 



GaryCollison 175 



AMERICAN INDIAN (see NATIVE AMERICAN) 

ANIMAL 

"'Best Damm Dog We Ever Had': Some Folkloristic and Anthropological 

Observations on San Francisco's Presidio Pet Cemetery," Richard E. Meyer 

and David M. Gradwohl, XII: 160-205 

ARCHAEOLOGY 

"The Archaeological Significance of Mausoleums [Pittsburgh, PA]," James B. 

Richardson III and Ronald C. Carlisle, 1: 156-165 
"Gravestones and Historical Archaeology: A Review Essay," David H.Watters, 

1: 174-179 

ARCHITECTURE 

"Poems in Stone: Tombs of Louis Henri Sullivan," Robert A. Wright, V: 168-209 
"The Thomas Foster Mausoleum: Canada's Taj Mahal," Sybil F. Crawford, XX: 
154-191 

ARKANSAS 

"Rural Southern Gravestones: Sacred Artifacts in the Upland South Folk 
Cemetery," Gregory Jeane, IV: 55-84 

ASIA MINOR (see TURKEY) 

AUSTRALIA 

"Aboriginal Australian Burials in Christian Missions," Karolyn K. Wrightson, 
XV: 234-263 

BELGIUM 

"Mourning in a Distant Land: Gold Star Pilgrimages to American Military 

Cemeteries in Europe, 1930-33," Lotte Larsen Meyer, XX: 30-75 
"Stylistic Variation in the Western Front Battlefield Cemeteries of World War I 

Combatant Nations," Richard E. Meyer, XVIII: 188-253 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

"The Year's Work in Gravemarker/ Cemetery Studies," Richard E. Meyer, XII: 

206-219; XIII: 223-231; XIV: 190-216; XV: 318-336; XVI: 242-263; XVII: 206-235; 

XVIII: 254-283; XIX: 272-313; XX: 333-390 

BIOGRAPHY (see also, OBITUARIES) 
"Harriette Merrifield Forbes," VII: vi, 1-2 

BLACK (see AFRICAN AMERICAN) 

BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS (see also, MASSACHUSETTS) 
"Boston's Historic Burying Grounds Initiative: 'Eliot Burying Ground,' 

'Dorchester North Burying Ground,' 'Copp's Hill Burying Ground,'" VII: 

59-102 
"A Common Thread: Needlework Samplers and American Gravestones," 

Laurel K. Gabel, XIX: 18-49 



1 76 Subject Index, Markers I-XX 



"Seven Initial Carvers of Boston, 1700-1725," Theodore Chase and Laurel K. 
Gabel, V: 210-232 

BRITISH COLUMBIA 

"In the Way of the White Man's Totem Poles: Stone Monuments Among 
Canada's Tsimshian Indians 1879-1910," Ronald W. Hawker, VII: 213-232 

CALIFORNIA 

"'Best Damm Dog We Ever Had': Some Folkloristic and Anthropological 

Observations on San Francisco's Presidio Pet Cemetery," Richard E. Meyer 

and David M. Gradwohl, XII: 160-205 
"Contemporary Gravemarkers of Youths: Milestones of Our Path Through Pain 

to Joy," Gay Lynch, XII: 144-159 
"The Origins of Marble Carving on Cape Cod, Part I: William Sturgis and 

Family," James Blachowicz, XIX, 64-173 

CANADA (see BRITISH COLUMBIA, ONTARIO, NOVA SCOTIA) 

CARIBBEAN 

"Benditcha Sea Vuestra Memoria: Sephardic Jewish Cemeteries in the Caribbean 
and Eastern North America," David Mayer Gradwohl, XV: vi, 1-29 

CARVER IDENTIFICATION METHODOLOGY AND ISSUES (see also, studies 

of individual cavers) 
"By Their Characters You Shall Know Them: Using Styles of Lettering to 

Identify Gravestone Carvers," Gray Williams, Jr., XVII: 162-205 
"Purchase Delay, Pricing Factors, and Attribution Elements in Gravestones 

from the Shop of Ithamar Spauldin," John S. Wilson, IX: 105-132 
"Seven Initial Carvers of Boston 1700-1725," Theodore Chase and Laurel K. 

Gabel, V: 210-232 

CARVER STUDIES (see under state entries) 

CAST IRON (see IRON) 

CEMETERY (GENERAL) 

"The Adkins-Woodson Cemetery: A Sociological Examination of Cemeteries as 

Community," Gary S. Foster and Richard L. Hummell, XII: 92-117 
"The Care of Old Cemeteries and Gravestones," Lance R. Mayer, 1: 118-141 
"Mystery, History, and an Ancient Graveyard," Melvin Williams, 1: 166-171 
"Protective Custody: The Museum's Responsibility for Gravestones," Robert P. 

Emlen, 1: 142-147 
"Recording Cemetery Data," F. Joanne Baker, Daniel Farber, Anne G. Giesecke, 

I: 98-117 
"Resources for the Classroom Teacher: an Annotated Bibliography," Mary 

Anne Mrozinski, 1: 172-173 

CERAMIC 

"'...do not go and leave me behind unwept...': Greek Gravemarkers Heed the 



Gary Collison 177 



Warning," Gay Lynch, XX: 280-301 
"'A Piece of Granite That's Been Made in Two Weeks': Terra-Cotta 

Gravemarkers from New Jersey and New York, 1875-1930," Richard Veit, 
XII: vi, 1-30 

CHILDREN 

"'Safe in the Arms of Jesus': Consolation on Delaware Children's Gravestones, 
1840-99," Deborah A. Smith, IV: 85-106 

CHINESE 

"Chinese Graves and Gravemarkers in Hong Kong," Chun-shing Chow and 
Elizabeth Kenworthy Teather, XV: 286-317 

CHINESE AMERICAN 

"The Chinese of Valhalla: Adaptation and Identity in a Midwestern American 
Cemetery," C. Fred Blake, X: 53-90 

CIVIL WAR 

"Quantrill's Three Graves and Other Reminders of the Lawrence Massacre," 

Randall M. Thies, XVIII: vi, 1-29 
"'Where Valor Proudly Sleeps': Theodore O'Hara and 'Bivouac of the Dead'," 

Thomas C. Ware, XI: 82-111 

COLORADO 

"Colorado Wooden Markers," James Milmoe, I: 56-61 

"The Woodmen of the World Monument Program," Annette Stott, XX: vi, 1-29 

CONCRETE/ CEMENT 

"A Modern [African American] Gravestone Maker: Some Lessons for 
Gravestone Historians," Barbara Rotundo, XIV: 86-109 

CONNECTICUT 

"The Center Church Crypt of New Haven, Connecticut: A Photographic 

Essay," Photographs by Daniel and Jessie Lie Farber; Text by Gray Williams, 

Jr., IX: 79-104 
"By Their Characters You Shall Know Them: Using Styles of Lettering to 

Identify Gravestone Carvers," Gray Williams, Jr., XVII: 162-205 
"A Chronological Survey of the Gravestones Made by Calvin Barber of 

Simsbury, Connecticut," Stephen Petke, X: vi, 1-52 
"A Common Thread: Needlework Samplers and American Gravestones," 

Laurel K. Gabel, XIX: 18-49 
"The Disappearing Shaker Cemetery," Thomas A. Malloy and Brenda Malloy, 

IX: 257-274 
"Eighteenth Century Gravestone Carvers of the Upper Narragansett Basin: 

Gabriel Allen," Vincent F. Luti, XX: 76-109 
"Eighteenth Century Gravestone Carvers of the Narragansett Basin: John and 

James New," Vincent F. Luti, XVI: 6-103 
"The Fencing Mania': The Rise and Fall of Nineteenth-Century Funerary 

Enclosures," Blanche Linden-Ward, VII: 35-58 
"Folk Art on Gravestones: The Glorious Contrast," Charles Bergengren, II: 

171-183 



1 78 Subject Index, Markers I-XX 



"T Never Regretted Coming to Africa': The Story of Harriet Ruggles Loomis' 

Gravestone," Laurel K. Gabel, XVI: 140-173 
"James Stanclift," Sherry Stancliff, in Jessie Lie Farber, ed., "Stonecutters and 

Their Works/' IV: 154-159 
"John Huntington, Gravestone Carver of Lebanon, Connecticut," Ann F. 

Shepardson, XIII: 142-222 
"Jonathan and John Loomis of Coventry, Connecticut," James A. Slater, in Jessie 

Lie Farber, ed. "Stonecutters and Their Works," IV: 131-138 
"The Joshua Hempstead Diary," Ralph L. Tucker, XII: 118-143 
"Jotham Warren, The Plainfield Trumpeter," James A. Slater, XIII: vi, 1-43 
"The Lamson Family Gravestone Carvers of Charlestown and Maiden, 

Massachusetts," Ralph L. Tucker, X: 151-218 
"'Md. by Thomas Gold': The Gravestones of a New Haven Carver," Meredith 

M. Williams and Gray Williams, Jr., V: vi, 1-59 
"'And the Men Who Made Them': The Signed Gravestones of New England," 

Sue Kelly and Anne Williams, II: 1-103 
"Merrimac Valley Style Gravestones: The Leighton and Worster Families," 

Ralph L. Tucker, XI: 142-167 
"The Papers of Dr. Ernest J. Caulfield on Connecticut Carvers and their Work," 

VIII: 9-342 
"A Particular Sense of Doom: Skeletal 'Revivals' in Northern Essex County, 

Massachusetts, 1737-1784," Peter Benes, III: 71-92 
"Portfolio of Mrs. Forbes' Cast-Iron Gates," Margot Gayle, VII: 19-34 
Review of James A. Slater's TJie Colonial Burying Grounds of Eastern Connecticut 

and the Men Who Made Them, Peter Benes, VI: 232-240 
"Symbolic Cemetery Gates in New England," Harriette M. Forbes, VII: 3-18 
"Tributes in Stone and Lapidary Lapses: Commemorating Black People in 

Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century America," Angelika Kriiger-Kahloula, 

VI: 32-100 
"Wanted: The Hook-And-Eye Man [Gershom Bartlett]," Ernest Caulfield, I: 

12-49 
"Where the Bay Meets the River: Gravestones and Stonecutters in the River 

Towns of Western Massachusetts, 1690-1810," Kevin Sweeney, III: 1-46 

CONSERVATION (see PRESERVATION) 

CONTEMPORARY DESIGN 

"The Example of D. Aldo Pitassi: Evolutionary Thought and Practice in 
Contemporary Memorial Design," Robert Prestiano, II: 203-220 

CRETE 

"Do-It-Yourself Immortality: Writing One's Own Epitaph," Karl S. Guthke, XX: 
110-153 

CZECH AMERICAN 

"Gravestones and the Linguistic Ethnography of Czech-Moravians In Texas," 
Eva Eckert, XVIII: 146-187 



GaryCollison 179 



"The Remarkable Crosses of Charles Andera," Loren N. Horton, XIV: 110-133 
"Language and Ethnicity Maintenance: Evidence of Czech Tombstone 

Inscriptions/' Eva Eckert, XV: 204-233 
"From Moravia to Texas: Immigrant Acculturation at the Cemetery," Eva 

Eckert, XIX: 174-211 

DELAWARE 

"'Safe in the Arms of Jesus': Consolation on Delaware Children's Gravestones, 

1840-99," Deborah A. Smith, IV: 85-106 
"Tributes in Stone and Lapidary Lapses: Commemorating Black People in 

Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century America," Angelika Krliger-Kahloula, 

VI: 32-100 

EGYPTIAN REVIVAL (STYLE) 

"Egyptian Revival Funerary Art in Green-Wood Cemetery," Elizabeth Broman, 
XVIII: 30-67 

ENGLAND 

"A Common Thread: Needlework Samplers and American Gravestones," 

Laurel K. Gabel, XIX: 18-49 
"Do-It-Yourself Immortality: Writing One's Own Epitaph," Karl S. Guthke, XX: 

110-153 
"Mourning in a Distant Land: Gold Star Pilgrimages to American Military 

Cemeteries in Europe, 1930-33," Lotte Larsen Meyer, XX: 30-75 
"Origins and Early Development of the Celtic Cross," Douglas Mac Lean, VII: 

233-275 

EPITAPH 

"'...do not go and leave me behind unwept...': Greek Gravemarkers Heed the 

Warning," Gay Lynch, XX: 280-301 
"Do-It-Yourself Immortality: Writing One's Own Epitaph," Karl S. Guthke, XX: 

110-153 
"Resurrecting the Epitaph," Diana Hume George and Malcolm A. Nelson, I: 

84-95 

ETHNICITY/ RACE (see AUSTRALIA, AFRICAN AMERICAN, CHINESE, 

CHINESE AMERICAN, CZECH AMERICAN, ITALIAN AMERICAN, 
MEXICAN AMERICAN, PENNSYLVANIA GERMAN, SCOTCH- 
IRISH) 

EUROPE 

"Stylistic Variation in the Western Front Battlefield Cemeteries of World War I 
Combatant Nations," Richard E. Meyer, XVIII: 188-253 

FICTION 

"The Old Gravestone," Hans Christian Andersen, XX: 192-195 

FENCING 

"The Fencing Mania': The Rise and Fall of Nineteenth-Century Funerary 



1 80 Subject Index, Markers I-XX 



Enclosures," Blanche Linden-Ward, VII: 35-58 
"Portfolio of Mrs. Forbes' Cast-iron Gates," Margot Gayle, VII: 19-34 

FLORIDA 

"Rural Southern Gravestones: Sacred Artifacts in the Upland South Folk 

Cemetery," Gregory Jeane, IV: 55-84 
"Under Grave Conditions: African- American Signs of Life and Death in North 

Florida," Robin Franklin Nigh, XIV: 158-189 

FOLK ART 

"Folk Art on Gravestones: The Glorious Contrast," Charles Bergengren, II: 171- 
183 

FRANCE 

"Do-It-Yourself Immortality: Writing One's Own Epitaph," Karl S. Guthke, XX: 

110-153 
"Mourning in a Distant Land: Gold Star Pilgrimages to American Military 

Cemeteries in Europe, 1930-33," Lotte Larsen Meyer, XX: 30-75 
"Stylistic Variation in the Western Front Battlefield Cemeteries of World War I 

Combatant Nations," Richard E. Meyer, XVIII: 188-253 

FRATERNALISM 

"Ritual, Regalia, and Remembrance: Fraternal Symbolism and Gravestones," 

Laurel K. Gabel, XI: vi, 1-27 
"The Woodmen of the World Monument Program," Annette Stott, XX: vi, 1-29 

FUNERAL RITUAL 

"'...do not go and leave me behind unwept...': Greek Gravemarkers Heed the 
Warning," Gay Lynch, XX: 280-301 

GATES 

"Portfolio of Mrs. Forbes' Cast-iron Gates," Margot Gayle, VII: 19-34 

"Symbolic Cemetery Gates in New England," Harriette M. Forbes, VII: 3-18 

GEOGRAPHY 

"Louisiana Cemeteries: Manifestations of Regional and Denominational 

Identity," Tadashi Nakagawa, XI: 28-51 
"Ontario Gravestones," Darrell A. Norris, V: 122-149 
"Rural Southern Gravestones: Sacred Artifacts in the Upland South Folk 

Cemetery," Gregory Jeane, IV: 55-84 

GEORGIA 

"Benditcha Sea Vuestra Memoria: Sephardic Jewish Cemeteries in the Caribbean 

and Eastern North America," David Mayer Gradwohl, XV: vi, 1-29 
"Do-It- Yourself Immortality: Writing One's Own Epitaph," Karl S. Guthke, XX: 

110-153 
"Eighteenth Century Gravestone Carvers of the Upper Narragansett Basin: 

Gabriel Allen," Vincent F. Luti, XX: 76-109 



Gary Collison 181 



"Rural Southern Gravestones: Sacred Artifacts in the Upland South Folk 

Cemetery," Gregory Jeane, IV: 55-84 
"Tributes in Stone and Lapidary Lapses: Commemorating Black People in 

Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century America," Angelika Kruger-Kahloula, 

VI: 32-100 

GERMAN AMERICAN 

"Early Pennsylvania Gravemarkers," photographs and text by Daniel and Jessie 

Lie Farber, V: 96-121 
"John Solomon Teetzel and the Anglo-German Gravestone Carving Tradition of 

18th Century Northwestern New Jersey," Richard F. Veit, XVII: 124-161 
"Pennsylvania German Gravestones: An Introduction," Thomas E. Graves, V: 

60-95 
"Language Codes in Texas German Graveyards," Scott Baird, IX: 217-256 

GERMANY 

"Do-It-Yourself Immortalitv: Writing One's Own Epitaph," Karl S. Guthke, XX: 
110-153 

GREECE 

"'...do not go and leave me behind unwept...': Greek Gravemarkers Heed the 
Warning," Gay Lynch, XX: 280-301 

HISTORICAL ARCHAEOLOGY 

"The Archaeological Significance of Mausoleums [Pittsburgh, PA]," James B. 

Richardson III and Ronald C. Carlisle, 1: 156-165 
"Gravestones and Historical Archaeology: A Review Essay," David HWatters, 

1: 174-179 

ILLINOIS 

"The Adkins-Woodson Cemetery: A Sociological Examination of Cemeteries as 

Community," Gary S. Foster and Richard L. Hummell, XII: 92-117 
"Acculturation and Transformation of Salt Lake Temple Symbols in Mormon 

Tombstone Art," George H. Schoemaker, IX: 197-216 
"Communities of the Dead: Tombstones as a Reflection of Social Organization," 

Paula J. Fenza, VF136-157 
"Do-It-Yourself Immortalitv: Writing One's Own Epitaph," Karl S. Guthke, XX: 

110-153 
"Poems in Stone: Tombs of Louis Henri Sullivan," Robert A. Wright, V: 168-209 

INDIAN (see NATIVE AMERICAN) 

INDIANA 

"Notes on the Production of Rustic Monuments in the Limestone Belt of 

Indiana," Warren E. Roberts, VII: 173-194 
"Stonecarvers of Monroe County, Indiana 1828-1890," Jennifer Lucas, VII: 195- 

212 



182 Subject Index, Markers I-XX 



"Tree-Stump Tombstones: Traditional Cultural Values and Rustic Funerary 
Art," Susanne S. Ridlen, XIII: 44-73 

IOWA 

"The Remarkable Crosses of Charles Andera," Loren N. Horton, XIV: 110-133 

"Tributes in Stone and Lapidary Lapses: Commemorating Black People in 

Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century America," Angelika Kriiger-Kahloula, 

VI: 32-100 

IRELAND 

"Origins and Early Development of the Celtic Cross," Douglas Mac Lean, VII: 

233-275 

IRON 

"The Fencing Mania': The Rise and Fall of Nineteenth-Century Funerary 

Enclosures," Blanche Linden-Ward, VII: 35-58 
"Portfolio of Mrs. Forbes' Cast-iron Gates," Margot Gayle, VII: 19-34 
"The Remarkable Crosses of Charles Andera," Loren N. Horton, XIV: 110-133 
"Symbolic Cemetery Gates in New England," Harriette M. Forbes, VII: 3-18 
"Wisconsin's Wrought Iron Markers," Julaine Maynard, I: 76-79 

ITALIAN AMERICAN 

"Death Italo- American Style: Reflections on Modern Martyrdom," Robert 

McGrath, IV: 107-113 
"Domesticating the Grave: Italian- American Memorial Practices at New York's 

Calvary Cemetery," Joseph J. Imguanti, XVII: 8-31 

ITALY 

"Do-It- Yourself Immortality: Writing One's Own Epitaph," Karl S. Guthke, XX: 

110-153 
"Death Italo- American Style: Reflections on Modern Martyrdom," Robert 

McGrath, IV: 107-113 
"An Early Christian Athlete: The Epitaph of Aurelius Eutychus of Eumeneia," 

Scott T. Carroll, VI: 208-230 
"The Protestant Cemetery in Florence and Anglo-American Attitudes Toward 

Italy," James A. Freeman, X: 219-242 

JAMAICA 

"Benditcha Sea Vuestra Memoria: Sephardic Jewish Cemeteries in the Caribbean 
and Eastern North America," David Mayer Gradwohl, XV: vi, 1-29 

JEWISH 

"Benditcha Sea Vuestra Memoria: Sephardic Jewish Cemeteries in the Caribbean 

and Eastern North America," David Mayer Gradwohl, XV: vi, 1-29 
"The Jewish Cemeteries of Louisville, Kentucky: Mirrors of Historical Processes 

and Theological Diversity through 150 Years," David M. Gradwohl, X: 117- 

150 
"Legendary Explanations: The Protection of the Remu Cemetery during the 

Holocaust," Simon J. Bronner, XIX: 40-53 



GarvCollison 183 



KANSAS 

"The New Deal's Landscape Legacy in Kansas Cemeteries," Cathy Ambler, XV: 

264-285 
"Quantrill's Three Graves and Other Reminders of the Lawrence Massacre," 

Randall M. Thies, XVIII: vi, 1-29 
"The Remarkable Crosses of Charles Andera," Loren N. Horton, XIV: 110-133 



KENTUCKY 

"The Jewish Cemeteries of Louisville, Kentucky: Mirrors of Historical Processes 

and Theological Diversity through 150 Years," David M. Gradwohl, X: 117- 

150 
"Monumental Ambition: A Kentucky Stonecutter's Career," Deborah A. Smith, 

XI: 168-185 
"Rural Southern Gravestones: Sacred Artifacts in the Upland South Folk 

Cemetery," Gregory Jeane, IV: 55-84 

LETTERING 

"By Their Characters You Shall Know Them: Using Styles of Lettering to 
Identify Gravestone Carvers," Gray Williams, Jr., XVII: 162-205 

LIMESTONE 

"Notes on the Production of Rustic Monuments in the Limestone Belt of 
Indiana," Warren E. Roberts, VII: 173-194 

LINGUISTICS 

"Gravestones and the Linguistic Ethnography of Czech-Moravians In Texas," 

Eva Eckert, XVIII: 146-187 
"Language and Ethnicity Maintenance: Evidence of Czech Tombstone 

Inscriptions," Eva Eckert, XV: 204-233 
"Language Codes in Texas German Graveyards," Scott Baird, IX: 217-256 
"Taylor, Texas, City Cemetery: A Language Community," Scott Baird, XIII: 112- 

141 

LOUISIANA 

"Louisiana Cemeteries: Manifestations of Regional and Denominational 

Identity," Tadashi Nakagawa, XI: 28-51 
"Rural Southern Gravestones: Sacred Artifacts in the Upland South Folk 

Cemetery," Gregory Jeane, IV: 55-84 

MAINE 

"The Carvers of Kingston, Massachusetts," James Blachowicz, XVIII: 70-145 

"The Disappearing Shaker Cemetery," Thomas A. Malloy and Brenda Malloy, 

IX: 257-274 
"Eighteenth Century Gravestone Carvers of the Narragansett Basin: John and 

James New," Vincent F. Luti, XVI: 6-103 
"The Pratt Family of Stonecutters," Ralph L. Tucker, XIV: 134-157 



Subject Index, Markers I-XX 



MARBLE CARVERS 

"Charles Miller Walsh: A Master Carver of Gravestones in Virginia, 1865-1901," 

Martha Wren Briggs, VII: 139-172 
"Fifty Years of Reliability: The Stonecarving Career of Charles Lloyd Neale 

(1800-1866) in Alexandria, Virginia," David Vance Finnell, X: 91-116 
"The Origins of Marble Carving on Cape Cod, Part I: William Sturgis and 

Family," James Blachowicz, XIX, 64-173 
"The Rule Family: Vermont Gravestone Carvers and Marble Dealers," Ann M. 

Cathcart, XIX: 214-239 

MASSACHUSETTS 

"Boston's Historic Burying Grounds Initiative: 'Eliot Burying Ground/ 

'Dorchester North Burying Ground,' 'Copp's Hill Burying Ground,'" VII: 

59-102 
"The Carvers of Kingston, Massachusetts," James Blachowicz XVIII: 70-145 
"A Chronological Survey of the Gravestones Made by Calvin Barber of 

Simsbury, Connecticut," Stephen Petke, X: vi, 1-52 
"The Colburn Connections: Hollis, New Hampshire Stonecarvers, 1780-1820," 

Theodore Chase and Laurel Gabel, III: 93-146 
"A Common Thread: Needlework Samplers and American Gravestones," 

Laurel K. Gabel, XIX: 18-49 
"Daniel Hastings of Newton, Massachusetts," Daniel Farber, in Jessie Lie 

Farber, ed., "Stonecutters and Their Works," IV: 157-159 
"The Disappearing Shaker Cemetery," Thomas A. Malloy and Brenda Malloy, 

IX: 257-274 
"Do-It-Yourself Immortality: Writing One's Own Epitaph," Karl S. Guthke, XX: 

110-153 
"Eighteenth Century Gravestone Carvers of the Upper Narragansett Basin: 

Gabriel Allen," Vincent F. Luti, XX: 76-109 
"Eighteenth Century Gravestone Carvers of the Narragansett Basin: John and 

James New," Vincent F. Luti, XVI: 6-103 
"Eternal Celebration in American Memorials," Jonathan L. Fairbanks, XVI: 104- 

137 
"The Feltons of New Salem, Massachusetts," Robert Drinkwater, in Jessie Lie 

Farber, ed., "Stonecutters and Their Works," IV: 169-173 
"'The Fencing Mania': The Rise and Fall of Nineteenth-Century Funerary 

Enclosures," Blanche Linden-Ward, VII: 35-58 
"Folk Art on Gravestones: The Glorious Contrast," Charles Bergengren, II: 171- 

183 
"Gravemarkers of the Early Congregational Ministers in North Central 

Massachusetts," Tom and Brenda Malloy, XIV: 34-85 
"The Gravestone Carving Traditions of Plymouth and Cape Cod," James 

Blachowicz, XV: 38-203 
"Ithamar Spauldin, Stonecarver of Concord, Massachusetts," C. R. Jones, I: 50- 

55 
"James Wilder of Lancaster, Massachusetts, 1741-1794," Laurel Gabel and 

Theodore Chase, in Jessie Lie Farber, ed., "Stonecutters and Their Works," 

IV: 166-169 
"The JN Carver," David Watters, II: 115-131 



Gary Collison 185 



'John Anthony Angel and William Throop: Stonecutters of the Narragansett 

Basin," Vincent F. Luti, in Jessie Lie Farber, ed., "Stonecutters and Their 

Works," IV: 148-153 
'The John Dwight Workshop in Shirley, Massachusetts, 1770-1816," Eloise 

Sibley West, VI: vii, 1-31 
'Joseph Barbur, Jr.: The Frond Carver of West Medway," Michael Cornish, II: 

133-147 
'The Lamson Family Gravestone Carvers of Charlestown and Maiden, 

Massachusetts," Ralph L. Tucker, X: 151-218 
"And the Men Who Made Them': The Signed Gravestones of New England," 

Sue Kelly and Anne Williams, II: 1-103 
'Merrimac Valley Style Gravestones: The Leighton and Worster Families," 

Ralph L. Tucker, XI: 142-167 
'The Mullicken Family Gravestone Carvers of Bradford, Massachusetts, 1663- 

1768," Ralph L. Tucker, IX: 23-58 
'Murder in Massachusetts: It's Written in Stone," Tom and Brenda Malloy, XVI: 

210-241 
'The Origins of Marble Carving on Cape Cod, Part I: William Sturgis and 

Family," James Blachowicz, XIX, 64-173 
'The Origins of Marble Carving on Cape Cod, Part II: The Orleans and 

Sandwich Carvers," James Blachowicz, XX: 196-279 
'A Particular Sense of Doom: Skeletal 'Revivals' in Northern Essex County, 

Massachusetts, 1737-1784," Peter Benes, III: 71-92 
'Portfolio of Mrs. Forbes' Cast-iron Gates," Margot Gayle, VII: 19-34 
'The Pratt Family of Stonecutters," Ralph L. Tucker, XIV: 134-157 
'Purchase Delay, Pricing Factors, and Attribution Elements in Gravestones 

from the Shop of Ithamar Spauldin," John S. Wilson, IX: 105-132 
'Seven Initial Carvers of Boston, 1700-1725," Theodore Chase and Laurel K. 

Gabel, V: 210-232 
'Slavery in Colonial Massachusetts as Seen Through Selected Gravestones," 

Tom and Brenda Malloy, XI: 112-141 
'Silent Stones in a Potter's Field: Grave Markers at the Almshouse Burial 

Ground in Uxbridge, Massachusetts," Ricardo J. Elia, IX: 133-158 
'Samuel Dwight: Vermont Gravestone Cutter," Nancy Jean Melin, in Jessie Lie 

Farber, ed., "Stonecutters and Their Works," IV: 160-165 
'Solomon Brewer: A Connecticut Valley Yankee in Westchester County," Gray 

Williams, Jr, XI: 52-81 
'Speaking Stones: New England Grave Carving and the Emblematic 

Tradition," Lucien L. Agosta, III: 47-70 
'Symbolic Cemetery Gates in New England," Harriette M. Forbes, VII: 3-18 
'Thomas Crawford's Monument for Amos Binney in Mount Auburn Cemetery, 

'A Work of Rare Merit,'" Lauretta Dimmick, IX: 169-196 
'Tributes in Stone and Lapidary Lapses: Commemorating Black People in 

Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century America," Angelika Kriiger-Kahloula, 

VI: 32-100 
'Where the Bay Meets the River: Gravestones and Stonecutters in the River 

Towns of Western Massachusetts, 1690-1810," Kevin Sweeney, III: 1-46 
'William Coye: Father of the Plymouth Carving Tradition," James Blachowicz, 

in collaboration with Vincent F. Luti, XVII: 32-107 



Subject Index, Markers I-XX 



"William Young of Tatnuck, Massachusetts," Mary and Rick Stafford, in Jessie 
Lie Farber, ed. "Stonecutters and Their Works," IV: 138-148 

MAUSOLEUMS 

"The Archaeological Significance of Mausoleums [Pittsburgh, PA]," James B. 

Richardson III and Ronald C. Carlisle, 1: 156-165 
"Poems in Stone: Tombs of Louis Henri Sullivan," Robert A. Wright, V: 168-209 
"The Thomas Foster Mausoleum: Canada's Taj Mahal," Sybil F. Crawford, XX: 

154-191 

METAL (see IRON) 

METHODOLOGY 

"Applications of Developing Technologies to Cemetery Studies," Gary Foster 

and Richard L. Hummel, XVII: 110-123 
"Gravestones and Historical Archaeology: A Review Essay," David H.Watters, 

I: 174-179 
"Recording Cemetery Data," F. Joanne Baker, Daniel Farber, Anne G. Giesecke, 

I: 98-117 
"Resurrecting the Epitaph," Diana Hume George and Malcolm A. Nelson, I: 

84-95 

MEXICAN AMERICAN 

"Composantos: Sacred Places of the Southwest," Laura Sue Sanborn, VI: 158- 

179 
"New Mexico Village Composantos," Nancy Hunter Warren, IV: 115-129 

MICHIGAN 

"The Remarkable Crosses of Charles Andera," Loren N. Horton, XIV: 110-133 

MID- WEST (see also, individual states) 

"The Adkins-Woodson Cemetery: A Sociological Examination of Cemeteries as 

Community," Gary S. Foster and Richard L. Hummell, XII: 92-117 
"The Chinese of Valhalla: Adaptation and Identity in a Midwestern American 

Cemetery," C. Fred Blake, X: 53-90 
"The Remarkable Crosses of Charles Andera," Loren N. Horton, XIV: 110-133 
"Tree-Stump Tombstones: Traditional Cultural Values and Rustic Funerary 

Art," Susanne S. Ridlen, XIII: 44-73 

MILITARY (see CIVIL WAR, WORLD WAR I) 

MINISTERS 

"Gravemarkers of the Early Congregational Ministers in North Central 
Massachusetts," Tom and Brenda Malloy, XIV: 34-85 

MINNESOTA 

"The Remarkable Crosses of Charles Andera," Loren N. Horton, XIV: 110-133 

MINORITIES (see AFRICAN AMERICAN, AUSTRALIA, MEXICAN 
AMERICAN, NATIVE AMERICAN) 



GaryCollison 187 



MISSISSIPPI 

"A Modern Gravestone Maker: Some Lessons for Gravestone Historians," 

Barbara Rotundo, XIV: 86-109 
"Rural Southern Gravestones: Sacred Artifacts in the Upland South Folk 

Cemetery," Gregory Jeane, IV: 55-84 
"Tributes in Stone and Lapidary Lapses: Commemorating Black People in 

Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century America," Angelika Kriiger-Kahloula, 

VI: 32-100 

MISSOURI 

"The Chinese of Valhalla: Adaptation and Identity in a Midwestern American 

Cemetery," C. Fred Blake, X: 53-90 
"Do-It-Yourself Immortality: Writing One's Own Epitaph," Karl S. Guthke, XX: 

110-153 
"Poems in Stone: Tombs of Louis Henri Sullivan," Robert A. Wright, V: 168-209 
"The Remarkable Crosses of Charles Andera," Loren N. Horton, XIV: 110-133 
"Quantrill's Three Graves and Other Reminders of the Lawrence Massacre," 

Randall M. Thies, XVIII: vi, 1-29 

MODERNISM 

"The Example of D. Aldo Pitassi: Evolutionary Thought and Practice in 
Contemporary Memorial Design," Robert Prestiano, II: 203-220 

MORMON 

"Acculturation and Transformation of Salt Lake Temple Symbols in Mormon 

Tombstone Art," George H. Schoemaker, IX: 197-216 
"Mormon Temple Reproductions on Cemetery Markers," Jacqueline S. 

Thursby, XX: 312-333 

NATIVE AMERICAN 

"Cemetery Symbols and Contexts of American Indian Identity: The Grave of 

Painter and Poet T. C. Canon," David M. Gradwohl, XIV: vi, 1-33 
"In the Way of the White Man's Totem Poles: Stone Monuments Among 

Canada's Tsimshian Indians 1879-1910," Ronald W. Hawker, VII: 213-232 

NEBRASKA 

"Mourning in a Distant Land: Gold Star Pilgrimages to American Military 

Cemeteries in Europe, 1930-33," Lotte Larsen Meyer, XX: 30-75 
"The Remarkable Crosses of Charles Andera," Loren N. Horton, XIV: 110-133 

NEVADA 

"Mormon Temple Reproductions on Cemetery Markers," Jacqueline S. 
Thursby, XX: 312-333 

NEW ENGLAND (see also, individual states) 

"'And the Men Who Made Them': The Signed Gravestones of New England," 

Sue Kelly and Anne Williams, II: 1-103 
"'And the Men Who Made Them': The Signed Gravestones of New England, 

1984 Additions," Sue Kelly and Anne Williams, III: 
"Resurrecting the Epitaph," Diana Hume George and Malcolm A. Nelson, I: 



Subject Index, Markers I-XX 



84-95 
"Scottish Gravestones and the New England Winged Skull," Betty Wiltshire, II: 

105-114 
"Speaking Stones: New England Grave Carving and the Emblematic 

Tradition," Lucien L. Agosta, III: 47-70 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 

"The Colburn Connections: Hollis, New Hampshire Stonecarvers, 1780-1820," 

Theodore Chase and Laurel Gabel, III: 93-146 
"The Disappearing Shaker Cemetery," Thomas A. Malloy and Brenda Malloy, 

IX: 257-274 
"Do-It-Yourself Immortality: Writing One's Own Epitaph," Karl S. Guthke, XX: 

110-153 
"'Fencing ye Tables': Scotch-Irish Ethnicity and the Gravestones of John 

Wight," David H. Watters, XVI: 174-209 
"The JN Carver," David Watters, II: 115-131 
"From Jonathan Hartshorne to Jeremiah Lane: Fifty Years of Gravestone 

Carving in Coastal New Hampshire," Glenn A. Knoblock, XIII: 74-111 
"The Lamson Family Gravestone Carvers of Charlestown and Maiden, 

Massachusetts," Ralph L. Tucker, X: 151-218 
"'And the Men Who Made Them': The Signed Gravestones of New England," 

Sue Kelly and Anne Williams, II: 1-103 
"Merrimac Valley Style Gravestones: The Leighton and Worster Families," 

Ralph L. Tucker, XI: 142-167 
"A Particular Sense of Doom: Skeletal 'Revivals' in Northern Essex County, 

Massachusetts, 1737-1784," Peter Benes, III: 71-92 
"Portfolio of Mrs. Forbes' Cast-iron Gates," Margot Gayle, VII: 19-34 
"Purchase Delay, Pricing Factors, and Attribution Elements in Gravestones 

from the Shop of Ithamar Spauldin," John S. Wilson, IX: 105-132 
"Quantrill's Three Graves and Other Reminders of the Lawrence Massacre," 

Randall M. Thies, XVIII: vi, 1-29 
"Tributes in Stone and Lapidary Lapses: Commemorating Black People in 

Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century America," Angelika Kruger-Kahloula, 

VI: 32-100 

NEW JERSEY 

"Benditcha Sea Vuestra Memoria: Sephardic Jewish Cemeteries in the Caribbean 

and Eastern North America," David Mayer Gradwohl, XV: vi, 1-29 
"John Solomon Teetzel and the Anglo-German Gravestone Carving Tradition of 

18th Century Northwestern New Jersey," Richard F. Veit, XVII: 124-161 
"'And the Men Who Made Them': The Signed Gravestones of New England," 

Sue Kelly and Anne Williams, II: 1-103 
"The New York and New Jersey Gravestone Carving Tradition," Richard F. 

Welch, IV: 1-54 
"'A Piece of Granite That's Been Made in Two Weeks': Terra-Cotta 

Gravemarkers from New Jersey and New York, 1875-1930," Richard Veit, 

XII: vi, 1-30 

NEW MEXICO 

"Composantos: Sacred Places of the Southwest," Laura Sue Sanborn, VI: 



Gary Collison 189 



158-179 
"New Mexico Village Composantos," Nancy Hunter Warren, IV: 115-129 

NEW YORK 

"Benditcha Sea Vuestra Memoria: Sephardic Jewish Cemeteries in the Caribbean 

and Eastern North America," David Mayer Gradwohl, XV: vi, 1-29 
"By Their Characters You Shall Know Them: Using Styles of Lettering to 

Identify Gravestone Carvers," Gray Williams, Jr., XVII: 162-205 
"The Disappearing Shaker Cemetery," Thomas A. Malloy and Brenda Malloy, 

IX: 257-274 
"Domesticating the Grave: Italian- American Memorial Practices at New York's 

Calvary Cemetery," Joseph J. Imguanti, XVII: 8-31 
"Egyptian Revival Funerary Art in Green- Wood Cemetery," Elizabeth Broman, 

XVIII: 30-67 
"Eternal Celebration in American Memorials," Jonathan L. Fairbanks, XVI: 104- 

137 
"The Fencing Mania': The Rise and Fall of Nineteenth-Century Funerary 

Enclosures," Blanche Linden-Ward, VII: 35-58 
"James Stanclift," Sherry Stancliff, in Jessie Lie Farber, ed., "Stonecutters and 

Their Works," IV: 154-159 
"'And the Men Who Made Them': The Signed Gravestones of New England," 

Sue Kelly and Anne Williams, II: 1-103 
"The New York and New Jersey Gravestone Carving Tradition," Richard F. 

Welch, IV: 1-54 
"'A Piece of Granite That's Been Made in Two Weeks': Terra-Cotta 

Gravemarkers from New Jersey and New York, 1875-1930," Richard Veit, 

XII: vi, 1-30 
"The Remarkable Crosses of Charles Andera," Loren N. Horton, XIV: 110-133 
"The Rule Family: Vermont Gravestone Carvers and Marble Dealers," Ann M. 

Cathcart, XIX: 214-239 
"Samuel Dwight: Vermont Gravestone Cutter," Nancy Jean Melin, in Jessie Lie 

Farber, ed., "Stonecutters and Their Works," IV: 160-165 
"Scriptural Stones and Barn Mending: At the Grave of Herman Melville," 

Kenneth Speirs, XV: 30-37 
"Solomon Brewer: A Connecticut Valley Yankee in Westchester County," Gray 

Williams, Jr, XI: 52-81 
"Tributes in Stone and Lapidary Lapses: Commemorating Black People in 

Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century America," Angelika Kriiger-Kahloula, 

VI: 32-100 

NORTH CAROLINA 

"Afro- American Gravemarkers in North Carolina," M. Ruth Little, VI: 102-134 

"Do-It-Yourself Immortality: Writing One's Own Epitaph," Karl S. Guthke, XX: 

110-153 
"The Gravestone Carving Traditions of Plymouth and Cape Cod," James 

Blachowicz, XV: 38-203 
"Openwork Memorials of North Carolina," Francis Y. Duval and Ivan B. Rigby, 

I: 62-75 
"Rural Southern Gravestones: Sacred Artifacts in the Upland South Folk 

Cemetery," Gregory Jeane, IV: 55-84 



190 Subject Index. Markers I-XX 



NORTH DAKOTA 

"The Remarkable Crosses of Charles Andera," Loren N. Horton, XIV: 110-133 

NOVA SCOTIA, CANADA 

"The Gravestone Carving Traditions of Plymouth and Cape Cod," James 

Blachowicz, XV: 38-203 
"'And the Men Who Made Them': The Signed Gravestones of New England," 

Sue Kelly and Anne Williams, II: 1-103 
"Research Report on the Graveyards of Kings County, Nova Scotia," Deborah 

Trask and Debra McNabb, V:150-167 
"William Coye: Father of the Plymouth Carving Tradition," James Blachowicz, 

in collaboration with Vincent F. Luti, XVII: 32-107 

OBITUARIES 

"Daniel Farber (1906-1998)," James A. Slater, XVI: vi, 1-5 

"Ernest Joseph Caulfield (1893-1972)," VIII: 1-8-Biographical Sketch 

"Ivan B. Rigby (1908-2000)," Jessie Lie Farber, with Katherine M. Noordsij, XIX: 

12-17 
"James Fanto Deetz (1930-2000)," Kathryn Crabtree and Eugene Prince, XIX: vi, 

1-11 
"Recollections of a Collaboration: A Tribute to the Art of Francis Duval," Ivan 

B. Rigby with Katherine M. Noordsij, IX: vi, 1-22 
"Warren E. Roberts (1924-1999)," Simon J. Bronner, XVII: vi, 1-5 

OCCUPATION 

"Gravemarkers of the Early Congregational Ministers in North Central 
Massachusetts," Tom and Brenda Malloy, XIV: 34-85 

OHIO 

"Quantrill's Three Graves and Other Reminders of the Lawrence Massacre," 
Randall M. Thies, XVIII: vi, 1-29 

OKLAHOMA 

"Cemetery Symbols and Contexts of American Indian Identity: The Grave of 

Painter and Poet T. C. Canon," David M. Gradwohl, XIV: vi, 1-33 
"Do-It-Yourself Immortality: Writing One's Own Epitaph," Karl S. Guthke, XX: 

110-153 
"The Remarkable Crosses of Charles Andera," Loren N. Horton, XIV: 110-133 
"Rural Southern Gravestones: Sacred Artifacts in the Upland South Folk 

Cemetery," Gregory Jeane, IV: 55-84 

ONTARIO, CANADA 

"Ontario Gravestones," Darrell A. Norris, V: 122-149 

"The Thomas Foster Mausoleum: Canada's Taj Mahal," Sybil F. Crawford, XX: 

154-191 
"United Above Though Parted Below: The Hand as Symbol on Nineteenth 

Century Southwest Ontario Gravestones," Nancy-Lou Patterson, VI: 180-206 

OREGON 

"'And Who Have Seen the Wilderness': The End of the Trail on Early Oregon 



Gary Collison 191 



Gravemarkers," Richard E. Meyer, XI: 186-219 
"Mormon Temple Reproductions on Cemetery Markers," Jacqueline S. 
Thursby, XX: 312-333 

PEDAGOGY 

"Mystery, History, and an Ancient Graveyard," Melvin Williams, 1: 166-171 
"Resources for the Classroom Teacher: an Annotated Bibliography," Mary 
Anne Mrozinski, 1: 172-173 

PENNSYLVANIA 

"The Archaeological Significance of Mausoleums [Pittsburgh, PA]," James B. 

Richardson III and Ronald C. Carlisle, 1: 156-165 
"Benditcha Sea Vuestra Memorial Sephardic Jewish Cemeteries in the Caribbean 

and Eastern North America," David Mayer Gradwohl, XV: vi, 1-29 
"Do-It-Yourself Immortalitv: Writing One's Own Epitaph," Karl S. Guthke, XX: 

110-153 
"Early Pennsylvania Gravemarkers," photographs and text by Daniel and Jessie 

Lie Farber, V: 96-121 
"The Example of D. Aldo Pitassi: Evolutionary Thought and Practice in 

Contemporary Memorial Design," Robert Prestiano, II: 203-220 
"Eternal Celebration in American Memorials," Jonathan L. Fairbanks, XVI: 104- 

137 
"Pennsylvania German Gravestones: An Introduction," Thomas E. Graves, V: 

60-95 
"Tributes in Stone and Lapidary Lapses: Commemorating Black People in 

Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century America," Angelika Kriiger-Kahloula, 

VI: 32-100 
"'Where Valor Proudly Sleeps': Theodore O'Hara and 'Bivouac of the Dead'," 

Thomas C. Ware, XI: 82-111 

PET CEMETERIES (see ANIMAL) 

POEMS 

"A Cemetery," Emily Dickinson, XVIII: 68-69 

"Joshua Sawyer," John Fitzsimmons, XVI: 138-139 

"Key West Cemetery," Kenneth Pobo, XIX: 212-213 

"The Quaker Graveyard," Silas Weir Mitchell, XVII: 108-109 

POETRY 

"Poets Among the Stones," Kenneth Pobo, XX: 302-311 

"'Where Valor Proudlv Sleeps': Theodore O'Hara and 'Bivouac of the Dead'," 
Thomas C. Ware, XI: 82-111 

POLAND 

"Legendary Explanations: The Protection of the Remu Cemetery during the 
Holocaust," Simon J. Bronner, XIX: 40-53 

PORTUGAL 

"Benditcha Sea Vuestra Memorial Sephardic Jewish Cemeteries in the Caribbean 
and Eastern North America," David Mayer Gradwohl, XV: vi, 1-29 



192 Subj ect Index, Markers I-XX 



PRESERVATION 

"Boston's Historic Burying Grounds Initiative: 'Eliot Burying Ground/ 

'Dorchester North Burying Ground/ 'Copp's Hill Burying Ground,'" VII: 

59-102 
"The Care of Old Cemeteries and Gravestones," Lance R. Mayer, 1: 118-141 
"Protective Custody: The Museum's Responsibility for Gravestones," Robert P. 

Emlen, 1: 142-147 
"Recording Cemetery Data," F. Joanne Baker, Daniel Farber, Anne G. Giesecke, 

I: 98-117 

RHODE ISLAND 

"Benditcha Sea Vuestra Memoria: Sephardic Jewish Cemeteries in the Caribbean 

and Eastern North America," David Mayer Gradwohl, XV: vi, 1-29 
"A Common Thread: Needlework Samplers and American Gravestones," 

Laurel K. Gabel, XIX: 18-49 
"Eighteenth Century Gravestone Carvers of the Upper Narragansett Basin: 

Gabriel Allen," Vincent F. Luti, XX: 76-109 
"Eighteenth Century Gravestone Carvers of the Narragansett Basin: John and 

James New," Vincent F. Luti, XVI: 6-103 
'"The Fencing Mania': The Rise and Fall of Nineteenth-Century Funerary 

Enclosures," Blanche Linden-Ward, VII: 35-58 
"Folk Art on Gravestones: The Glorious Contrast," Charles Bergengren, II: 171- 

183 
"John Anthony Angel and William Throop: Stonecutters of the Narragansett 

Basin," Vincent F. Luti, in Jessie Lie Farber, ed., "Stonecutters and Their 

Works," IV: 148-153 
"The John Stevens Shop," Esther Fisher Benson, I: 80-83 
'"And the Men Who Made Them': The Signed Gravestones of New England," 

Sue Kelly and Anne Williams, II: 1-103 
"Portfolio of Mrs. Forbes' Cast-iron Gates," Margot Gayle, VII: 19-34 
"Stonecarvers of the Narragansett Basin: Stephen and Charles Hartshorn of 

Providence," Vincent F. Luti, II: 149-169 
"Symbolic Cemetery Gates in New England," Harriette M. Forbes, VII: 3-18 
"Tributes in Stone and Lapidary Lapses: Commemorating Black People in 

Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century America," Angelika Krliger-Kahloula, 

VI: 32-100 
"William Coye: Father of the Plymouth Carving Tradition," James Blachowicz, 

in collaboration with Vincent F. Luti, XVII: 32-107 

RURAL CEMETERY 

"Communities of the Dead: Tombstones as a Reflection of Social Organization," 

Paula J. Fenza, VL136-157 
"Egyptian Revival Funerary Art in Green- Wood Cemetery," Elizabeth Broman, 

XVIII: 30-67 
"Eternal Celebration in American Memorials," Jonathan L. Fairbanks, XVI: 104- 

137 
"The Example of D. Aldo Pitassi: Evolutionary Thought and Practice in 

Contemporary Memorial Design," Robert Prestiano, II: 203-220 
"'The Fencing Mania': The Rise and Fall of Nineteenth-Century Funerary 



GaryCollison 193 



Enclosures," Blanche Linden-Ward, VII: 35-58 
"Poems in Stone: Tombs of Louis Henri Sullivan," Robert A. Wright, V: 168-209 

SAMOA 

"Do-It-Yourself Immortality: Writing One's Own Epitaph," Karl S. Guthke, XX: 

110-153 

SCOTS IRISH 

'"Fencing ye Tables': Scotch-Irish Ethnicity and the Gravestones of John 
Wight," David H. Watters, XVI: 174-209 

SCOTLAND 

"Adam and Eve Scenes on Kirkyards in the Scottish Lowlands: An Introduction 

and Gazetteer," Betty Willsher, XII: 31-91 
"The Green Man as an Emblem on Scottish Tombstones," Betty Willsher, IX: 

59-78 
"Origins and Early Development of the Celtic Cross," Douglas Mac Lean, VII: 

233-275 
"Scottish Gravestones and the New England Winged Skull," Betty Willshire, II: 

105-114 

SCULPTURE AND SCULPTORS 

"Eternal Celebration in American Memorials," Jonathan L. Fairbanks, XVI: 104- 

137 
"The Example of D. Aldo Pitassi: Evolutionary Thought and Practice in 

Contemporary Memorial Design," Robert Prestiano, II: 203-220 
"Thomas Crawford's Monument for Amos Binney in Mount Auburn Cemetery, 

'A Work of Rare Merit,'" Lauretta Dimmick, IX: 169-196 

SHAKERS 

"The Disappearing Shaker Cemetery," Thomas A. Malloy and Brenda Malloy, 
IX: 257-274 

SHORT STORY (see FICTION) 

SOCIOLOGY 

"The Adkins-Woodson Cemetery: A Sociological Examination of Cemeteries as 

Community," Gary S. Foster and Richard L. Hummell, XII: 92-117 
"Contemporary Gravemarkers of Youths: Milestones of Our Path Through Pain 

to Joy," Gay Lynch, XII: 144-159 
"Communities of the Dead: Tombstones as a Reflection of Social Organization," 

Paula J. Fenza, VF136-157 

SOUTH (see also, individual southern states) 

"Rural Southern Gravestones: Sacred Artifacts in the Upland South Folk 

Cemetery," Gregory Jeane, IV: 55-84 
"Tributes in Stone and Lapidary Lapses: Commemorating Black People in 

Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century America," Angelika Krliger-Kahloula, 

VI: 32-100 



1 94 Subject Index, Markers 1-XX 



SOUTH CAROLINA 

"Eighteenth Century Gravestone Carvers of the Upper Narragansett Basin: 

Gabriel Allen," Vincent F. Luti, XX: 76-109 
"Folk Art on Gravestones: The Glorious Contrast," Charles Bergengren, II: 171- 

183 
"The Gravestone Carving Traditions of Plymouth and Cape Cod," James 

Blachowicz, XV: 38-203 
"'And the Men Who Made Them': The Signed Gravestones of New England," 

Sue Kelly and Anne Williams, II: 1-103 
"Rural Southern Gravestones: Sacred Artifacts in the Upland South Folk 

Cemetery," Gregory Jeane, IV: 55-84 

SOUTH DAKOTA 

"The Remarkable Crosses of Charles Andera," Loren N. Horton, XIV: 110-133 

SOUTHWEST (see New Mexico) 

STYLES 

"Egyptian Revival Funerary Art in Green- Wood Cemetery," Elizabeth Broman, 

XVIII: 30-67 
"Eternal Celebration in American Memorials," Jonathan L. Fairbanks, XVI: 104- 

137 
"Louisiana Cemeteries: Manifestations of Regional and Denominational 

Identity," Tadashi Nakagawa, XI: 28-51 
"Notes on the Production of Rustic Monuments in the Limestone Belt of 

Indiana," Warren E. Roberts, VII: 173-194 
"Stylistic Variation in the Western Front Battlefield Cemeteries of World War I 

Combatant Nations," Richard E. Meyer, XVIII: 188-253 
"Tree-Stump Tombstones: Traditional Cultural Values and Rustic Funerary 

Art," Susanne S. Ridlen, XIII: 44-73 

SYMBOLISM 

"Acculturation and Transformation of Salt Lake Temple Symbols in Mormon 

Tombstone Art," George H. Schoemaker, IX: 197-216 
"Adam and Eve Scenes on Kirkyards in the Scottish Lowlands: An Introduction 

and Gazetteer," Betty Willsher, XII: 31-91 
"Cemetery Symbols and Contexts of American Indian Identity: The Grave of 

Painter and Poet T. C. Canon," David M. Gradwohl, XIV: vi, 1-33 
"A Common Thread: Needlework Samplers and American Gravestones," 

Laurel K. Gabel, XIX: 18-49 
"Contemporary Gravemarkers of Youths: Milestones of Our Path Through Pain 

to Joy," Gay Lynch, XII: 144-159 
"The Green Man as an Emblem on Scottish Tombstones," Betty Willsher, IX: 

59-78 
"Notes on the Production of Rustic Monuments in the Limestone Belt of 

Indiana," Warren E. Roberts, VII: 173-194 
"Origins and Early Development of the Celtic Cross," Douglas Mac Lean, VII: 

233-275 



GaryCollison 195 



"A Particular Sense of Doom: Skeletal 'Revivals' in Northern Essex County, 

Massachusetts, 1737-1784," Peter Benes, III: 71-92 
"The Remarkable Crosses of Charles Andera," Loren N. Horton, XIV: 110-133 
"Ritual, Regalia, and Remembrance: Fraternal Symbolism and Gravestones," 

Laurel K. Gabel, XI: vi, 1-27 
"Say it with Flowers in the Victorian Cemetery," June Hadden Hobbs, XIX: 240- 

271 
"Scottish Gravestones and the New England Winged Skull," Betty Willshire, II: 

105-114 
"Speaking Stones: New England Grave Carving and the Emblematic 

Tradition," Lucien L. Agosta, III: 47-70 
"Symbolic Cemetery Gates in New England," Harriette M. Forbes, VII: 3-18 
"Tree-Stump Tombstones: Traditional Cultural Values and Rustic Funerary 

Art," Susanne S. Ridlen, XIII: 44-73 
"United Above Though Parted Below: The Hand as Symbol on Nineteenth 

Century Southwest Ontario Gravestones," Nancy-Lou Patterson, VI: 180-206 
"The Woodmen of the World Monument Program," Annette Stott, XX: vi, 1-29 
"The Willow Tree and Urn Motif, " Blanche M. G. Linden, 1: 148-155 
"'And Who Have Seen the Wilderness': The End of the Trail on Early Oregon 

Gravemarkers," Richard E. Meyer, XI: 186-219 

TABLE STONES (LEDGER STONES) 

"Gravemarkers of the Early Congregational Ministers in North Central 
Massachusetts," Tom and Brenda Malloy, XIV: 34-85 

TEACHING (see PEDAGOGY) 

TECHNOLOGIES 

"Applications of Developing Technologies to Cemetery Studies," Gary Foster 
and Richard L. Hummel, XVII: 110-123 

TENNESSEE 

"Rural Southern Gravestones: Sacred Artifacts in the Upland South Folk 
Cemetery," Gregory Jeane, IV: 55-84 

TERRA-COTTA 

"'A Piece of Granite That's Been Made in Two Weeks': Terra-Cotta 

Gravemarkers from New Jersey and New York, 1875-1930," Richard Veit, 

XII: vi, 1-30 

TEXAS 

"Gravestones and the Linguistic Ethnography of Czech-Moravians In Texas," 

Eva Eckert, XVIII: 146-187 
"Language and Ethnicity Maintenance: Evidence of Czech Tombstone 

Inscriptions," Eva Eckert, XV: 204-233 
"Language Codes in Texas German Graveyards," Scott Baird, IX: 217-256 
"From Moravia to Texas: Immigrant Acculturation at the Cemetery," Eva 

Eckert, XIX: 174-211 
"The Remarkable Crosses of Charles Andera," Loren N. Horton, XIV: 110-133 



196 Subject Index, Markers I-XX 



"Rural Southern Gravestones: Sacred Artifacts in the Upland South Folk 

Cemetery," Gregory Jeane, IV: 55-84 
"Taylor, Texas, City Cemetery: A Language Community," Scott Baird, XIII: 

112-141 
"Tributes in Stone and Lapidary Lapses: Commemorating Black People in 

Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century America," Angelika Krliger-Kahloula, 

VI: 32-100 

TEXTILE DESIGNS 

"A Common Thread: Needlework Samplers and American Gravestones," 
Laurel K. Gabel, XIX: 18-49 

TREE-STUMP 

"Notes on the Production of Rustic Monuments in the Limestone Belt of 

Indiana," Warren E. Roberts, VII: 173-194 
"Tree-Stump Tombstones: Traditional Cultural Values and Rustic Funerary 

Art," Susanne S. Ridlen, XIII: 44-73 
"The Woodmen of the World Monument Program," Annette Stott, XX: vi, 1-29 

TURKEY 

"An Early Christian Athlete: The Epitaph of Aurelius Eutychus of Eumeneia," 
Scott T. Carroll, VI: 208-230 

UTAH 

"Acculturation and Transformation of Salt Lake Temple Symbols in Mormon 

Tombstone Art," George H. Schoemaker, IX: 197-216 
"Mormon Temple Reproductions on Cemetery Markers," Jacqueline S. 

Thursby, XX: 312-333 

VERMONT 

"Do-It-Yourself Immortality: Writing One's Own Epitaph," Karl S. Guthke, XX: 

110-153 
"Death Italo-American Style: Reflections on Modern Martrydom," Robert 

McGrath, IV: 107-113 
"Enos Clark, Vermont Gravestone Carver," Margaret R. Jenks, in Jessie Lie 

Farber, ed., "Stonecutters and Their Works," IV: 174-176 
"Folk Art on Gravestones: The Glorious Contrast," Charles Bergengren, II: 171- 

183 
"T Never Regretted Coming to Africa': The Story of Harriet Ruggles Loomis' 

Gravestone," Laurel K. Gabel, XVI: 140-173 
"'And the Men Who Made Them': The Signed Gravestones of New England," 

Sue Kelly and Anne Williams, II: 1-103 
"The Rule Family: Vermont Gravestone Carvers and Marble Dealers," Ann M. 

Cathcart, XIX: 214-239 
"Samuel Dwight: Vermont Gravestone Cutter," Nancy Jean Melin, in Jessie Lie 

Farber, ed., "Stonecutters and Their Works," IV: 160-165 
"Symbolic Cemetery Gates in New England," Harriette M. Forbes, VII: 3-18 
"Tributes in Stone and Lapidary Lapses: Commemorating Black People in 

Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century America," Angelika Krtiger-Kahloula, 

VI: 32-100 



GaryCollison 197 



"Wanted: The Hook-And-Eye Man [Gershom Bartlett]," Ernest Caulfield, I: 
12-49 

VIRGIN ISLANDS 

"Benditcha Sea Vnestra Memoria: Sephardic Jewish Cemeteries in the Caribbean 
and Eastern North America," David Mayer Gradwohl, XV: vi, 1-29 

VIRGINIA 

"Charles Miller Walsh: A Master Carver of Gravestones in Virginia, 1865-1901," 

Martha Wren Briggs, VII: 139-172 
"Do-It- Your self Immortality: Writing One's Own Epitaph," Karl S. Guthke, XX: 

110-153 
"Fifty Years of Reliability: The Stonecarving Career of Charles Lloyd Neale 

(1800-1866) in Alexandria, Virginia," David Vance Finnell, X: 91-116 
"Folk Art on Gravestones: The Glorious Contrast," Charles Bergengren, II: 171- 

183 
"Funerary Monuments and Burial Patterns of Colonial Tidewater Virginia, 

1607-1776," Elizabeth A. Crowell and Norman Vardney Mackie III, VII: 103- 

138 
"Rural Southern Gravestones: Sacred Artifacts in the Upland South Folk 

Cemetery," Gregory Jeane, IV: 55-84 

WASHINGTON, D.C. 

"Eternal Celebration in American Memorials," Jonathan L. Fairbanks, XVI: 104- 

137 
"'Where Valor Proudly Sleeps': Theodore O'Hara and 'Bivouac of the Dead'," 

Thomas C Ware, XI: 82-111 

WEST VIRGINIA 

"Rural Southern Gravestones: Sacred Artifacts in the Upland South Folk 
Cemetery," Gregory Jeane, IV: 55-84 

WISCONSIN 

"The Carvers of Portage County, Wisconsin, 1850-1900," Phil Kallas, II: 187-202 

"The Remarkable Crosses of Charles Andera," Loren N. Horton, XIV: 110-133 

WOOD 

"Colorado Wooden Markers," James Milmoe, I: 56-61 

WOODMEN OF THE WORLD (see TREE-STUMP) 

WORLD WAR I 

"Mourning in a Distant Land: Gold Star Pilgrimages to American Military 

Cemeteries in Europe, 1930-33," Lotte Larsen Meyer, XX: 30-75 
"Stylistic Variation in the Western Front Battlefield Cemeteries of World War I 

Combatant Nations," Richard E. Meyer, XVIII: 188-253 



The Year's Work in Cemetery and Gravemarker 
Studies: An International Bibliography 

Compiled by Gary Collison 



Since 1995 (retrospective to 1990), Markers has included Richard E. 
Meyer's invaluable annual compilation of scholarship. This year's edition 
attempts to provide comprehensive coverage of the most recent English- 
language scholarship about gravemarkers, cemeteries, monuments, and 
memorials in the modern era (i.e., post-1500). It also includes some pre- 
modern subjects and non-English language studies but on a much more 
selective basis than in previous years. As in the past, most marginal 
materials are necessarily omitted, including entries that would fall under 
the heading of "death and dying" as well as compilations of gravemarker 
transcriptions, book reviews, items in trade and popular magazines, and 
newspaper articles. This year's listing also omits conference papers. 
(Note that the bibliography typically covers parts of two years. This 
year's bibliography includes items published in 2002 and 2003; items 
published in 2003 after this bibliography was compiled will be included 
in next year's listing.) 

I hope this year's streamlined bibliography is easier to use but still 
comprehensive enough to meet the needs of members. Please send me 
your comments and suggestions. For coverage before 1990, researchers 
should consult the extensive bibliography in Richard E. Meyer's 
Cemeteries and Gravemarkers: Voices of American Culture (1989). 

Books, Monographs, Pamphlets, etc. 

Allen, Stephanie R. Tlie Osteobiography of Four Individuals from the New York 
African Burial Ground: Discovering the Life of a Slave. Amherst, Mass: 
[s.n.], 2003. 

Batignani, Karen Wentworth. Maine's Coastal Cemeteries: A Historic Tour. 
Camden, ME: Down East Books, 2003. 

Borges, Maria Elizia. Arte Funcrdria no Brasil, 1890-1930: Oficio de Marmoristas 
Halianos em Ribeirdo Preto = Funerary Art in Brazil, 1890-1930: Italian 
Marble Carver Craft in Ribeirdo Preto. Belo Horizonte: Editora C/ Arte, 
2002. 



[99 



Broderick, Warren F. Botanical and Ecological Resources Inventory ofOakwood 
Cemetery. Lansingburgh, NY: Warren F. Broderick, 2002. 

Caubert, Annie, and Elisabeth Fontan. Art phenicien: la sculpture de tradition 
phenicienne. Paris: Reunion des musees nationaux, 2002. 

Climo, Jacob, and Maria G. Cattell. Social Memory and History: Anthropological 
Perspectives. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press, 2002. 

Cunningham, Arthur S. But Not Forgotten: Lincoln Colored Cemetery. New 
Oxford, PA: Arthur S. Cunningham, 2002. 

DeBartolo, Sharon. Your Guide to Cemetery Research. Cincinnati, OH: Betterway 
Books, 2002. 

Der Manuelian, Peter. Slab Stelae of the Giza Necropolis. New Haven, CT: Yale 
Egyptological Seminar, 2003. 

Detamore, Bree. A Field Guide to Mount Auburn's Fall Foliage. Cambridge, MA: 
Friends of Mount Auburn Cemetery, 2002. 

. African American Heritage Trail at Mount Auburn Cemetery. 

Cambridge, MA: Friends of Mount Auburn Cemetery, 2003. 

. Botanists, Horticulturists and Garden Enthusiasts at Mount 



Auburn. Cambridge, MA: Friends of Mount Auburn Cemetery, 2002. 
. Tlie Poets of Mount Auburn. Cambridge, MA: Friends of Mount 



Auburn Cemetery, 2002. 

.. A Field Guide to Some of Mount Auburn's Most Interesting 



Conifers. Cambridge, MA: Friends of Mount Auburn Cemetery, 2002. 
.. Pioneering Spirits: Some Remarkable Women of Letters at Mount 



Auburn. Cambridge, MA: Friends of Mount Auburn Cemetery, 2003. 

Dressier, Rachel. Of Armor and Men in Medieval England: Tlie Chivalric Rhetoric of 
Three English Knights' Effigies. 1952; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2003. 

Effros, Bonnie. Merovingian Mortuary Archaeology and the Making of the Early 
Middle Ages. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003. 

Everett, Holly J. Roadside Crosses in Contemporary Memorial Culture. Denton: 
University of North Texas Press, 2002. 

Fanthorpe, Lionel, and Richard Pawelko. Talking Stones: Grave Stories and 
Unusual Epitaphs in Wales. Llandysul: Gomer, 2003. 

Fey, Carola. Die Begrabnisse der Grafen von Sponheim: Untersuchungen zur 
Sepulkralkultur des mittelalterlichen Adels. Mainz: Selbstverlag der 
Gesellschaft fur Mittelrheinische Kirchengeschichte, 2003. 

Garfield, John. The Fallen: A Photographic Journey Through the War Cemeteries and 
Memorials of the Great War, 1914-18. Staplehurst: Spellmount, 2003. 

Gerding, Henrik. Tlie Tomb ofCaecilia Metetla: Tumulus, Tropaeum and Thymele. 



200 



Lund: H. Gerding, 2002. 

Grasby, Richard. Letter Cutting in Stone. Rev. ed. Greensboro, NC: John Neal 
Bookseller, 2002. 

Griffiths, Edward R. Dead Interesting Dorset: An Anthology of the Wit and Wisdom 
of Dorset's Epitaph Writers and Ecclesiastic Engravers from the 16th to 19th 
Centuries. Bournemouth: Green Fields Books, 2003. 

Guthke, Karl Siegfried. Epitaph Culture in the West: Variations on a Theme in 
Cultural History. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2003. 

Hakenson, Donald C. This Forgotten Land: A Tour of Civil War Sites and Other 
Historical Landmarks South of Alexandria, Virginia. Alexandria, VA: 
Donald C. Hakenson, 2002. 

Handley, Mark A. Death, Society and Culture: Inscriptions and Epitaphs in Gaul and 
Spain, AD 300-750. Oxford, UK: Archaeopress, 2003. 

Harfield, Alan. Christian Cemeteries and Memorials in the State of Malacca. London: 
BACSA, 2002. 

Harmond, Richard P., and Thomas Curran. A History of Memorial Day: Unity, 
Discord and the Pursuit of Happiness. New York: P. Lang, 2002. 

Harvey, Bill. Texas Cemeteries: Tlie Resting Places of the Famous, Infamous, and Just 
Plain Interesting Texans. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2003. 

Hewson, Eileen. Himalayan Headstones from Ladakh Kashmir. London: BACSA, 
2002. 

Hojte, Jakob Munk. Images of Ancestors. Aarhus: Aarhus Universitetsforlag, 
2002. 

Home, Alistair. Seven Ages of Paris [epilogue on Pere Lachaise]. New York: A. A. 
Knopf, 2002. 

Ikram, Salima. Death and Burial in Ancient Egypt. White Plains: Longman 
Publishing Group, 2003. 

Isenberg, Nancy, and Andrew Burstein. Mortal Remains: Death in Early America. 
Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003. 

Jeffrey, Jonathan, Mike Wilson, Ray Buckberry, et al. Mt. Moriah Cemetery: 
A History and Census of Bowling Green, Kentucky's African-American 
Cemetery. Bowling Green, KY: Landmark Association, 2002. 

Kutvolgyi, Mihaly, and Laszlo Peterfy. Elso Hdzam Vala [Romanian 
woodcarving, incl. gravemarkers]. Budapest: Timp, 2002. 

Lack, William, and Philip Whittemore. A Series of Monumental Brasses, Indents 
and Incised Slabs from the 13th to the 20th Century. Vol. 1, pt. 3. London: 
Lynton, 2002. 

Longworth, Philip. The Unending Vigil: The History of the Commonwealth War 



201 



Graves Commission. Barnsley, UK: Pen & Sword Books, 2003. 

Mallenby, Jeremy, Terry, and Patricia. The Orbs of Salem Cemetery: Are They Real 
or Not? Montreal: Institute of Psychometric Assessment, Applied 
Studies & Investigative Research, 2003. 

Mato, Omar. City of Angels: TJie History ofRecoleta Cemetary: A Guide to its 
Treasures. Buenos Aires: Mato, 2002. 

McCane, Byron R. Roll Back the Stone: Death and Burial in the World of Jesus. 
Harrisburg: Trinity Press International, 2003. 

Mills, Cynthia, and Pamela H. Simpson. Monuments to the Lost Cause: Women, 
Art, and the Landscapes of Southern Memory. Knoxville: University of 
Tennessee Press, 2003. 

Misra, Neeru, and Tanay Misra. Tlw Garden Tomb of Humayun: An Abode in 
Paradise. New Delhi: Aryan Books International, 2003. 

Morgan, John D., ed. Death and Bereavement Around the World: Death and 

Bereavement in Europe. Amityville: Bay wood Publishing Company, 
2003. 

Murphy, Josephine. Novelli, a Forgotten Sculptor [NY; monuments and 
mausoleums]. Boston: Branden Books, 2003. 

Northup, A. Dale. Detroit's Woodlaivn Cemetery. Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 2003. 

Orear, Leslie. Mother Jones and the Union Miners Cemetery, Mount Olive, Illinois. 
Chicago: Illinois Labor History Society, 2002. 

Plunkett, Steven J. Sutton Hoo: Suffolk [Anglo-Saxon ship burial]. London: 
National Trust (Enterprises), 2002. 

Rathje, Annette, and Marjatta Nielsen. Pots for the Living, Pots for the Dead 
[Greek funeral vases]. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 
University of Copenhagen, 2002. 

Rawlings, Keith. Gone but Not Forgotten: Quinette Cemetery, a Slave Burial 
Ground, est. 1866. Kirkwood, MO: Youth in Action, Inc., 2003. 

Roberts, Alun. Discovering Welsh Graves. Cathays, Cardiff: University of Wales 
Press, 2003. 

Scholten, Frits. Sumptuous Memories: Studies in Seventeenth-Centun/ Dutch Tomb 
Sculpture. Zwolle: Waanders, 2003. 

Shah, Syed Shakir Ali. Nawabshah: Tlie Lost Glory. Karachi: Indus Publications, 
2002. 

Sidinger, Jim. Eternal Companions: Faces of the Pere Lachaise, Paris. Denver: 
Catslip Arts, 2003. 

Stanton, Scott. Tlte Tombstone Tourist. New York: Pocket [Imprint], Simon & 
Schuster, 2003. 



202 



Strobeck, Louise. Burial Customs in Southern Scandinavia. Portland: Nordic 
Academic Press, 2002. 

Study on Improvements to Veterans Cemeteries. [Washington, DC]: National 
Cemetery Administration, 2002. 

Tait, Clodagh. Death, Burial, and Commemoration in Ireland, 1550-1650. New 
York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. 

Van Voorhies, Christine. A Comprehensive Guide to Preserving Historic Cemeteries 
in Georgia. Eufaula: Historic Chattahoochee Commission, 2003. 

Watkins, Meredith G. The Cemetery and Cultural Memory, Montreal Region, 1860 
to 1900. Ottawa: National Library of Canada, 2002. 

Weaver, George Sumner. Lives and Graves of Our Presidents. Murrieta: New 
Library Press. Net, 2003. 

Weeks, Jim. Gettysburg: Memory, Market, and an American Shrine. Princeton, NJ: 
Princeton University Press, 2003. 

Williams, Howard, ed. Archaeologies of Remembrance: Death and Memory in Past 
Societies. New York: Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publishers, 2003. 

Williams, Payne. The American Cemetery: Tlie Oldest Cemetery in the Louisiana 
Purchase and a Shrine to God and History. Natchichoes, LA: Williams, 
2002. 

Woollacott, Ron. The Victorian Catacombs at Nunhead: A Short History of the Chapel 
Catacombs, Shaft Catacombs and the Eastern Catacomb in the Nunhead 
Cemetery of All Saints, Linden Grove, London, SE15. London: Maureen 
and Ron Woollacott, 2003. 

Worpole, Ken. Last Landscapes: The Architecture of the Cemetery in the West. 
London: Reaktion, 2003. 

Young, Brian. Respectable Burial: Montreal's Mount Royal Cemetery. Montreal: 
McGill-Queen's University Press, 2003. 

Articles in Scholarly Journals, Book Collections and Chapters, etc. 

Adshead, David. "'Like a Roman Sepulchre': John Soane's Design for a Castello 
d'acqua at Wimpole, Cambridgeshire, and its Italian Origins." Apollo 
(London, England) 157 (Apr. 2003): 15-21. 

Armstrong, Douglas V., and Mark L. Fleischman. "House-Yard Burials of 
Enslaved Laborers in Eighteenth-Century Jamaica." International 
journal of Historical Archaeology 7:1 (2003): 33-65. 

Ascher, Yoni. "Michelangelo's Projects for the Medicean Tombs: Rereading of 
the Story of the Medici Chapel." Artibus et Historiae 23:46 (2002): 83-96. 

Blachowicz, James. "The Origins of Marble Carving on Cape Cod, Part II: The 
Orleans and Sandwich Carvers." Markers XX (2003): 196-279. 



203 



Bloxham, D. "Britain's Holocaust Memorial Days: Reshaping the Past in the 
Service of the Present. Immigrants & Minorities 21:1/2 (2002): 41-62. 

Brier, Bob. "The Other Pyramids - A Tour of Ancient Nubia Where Clusters of 
Steep, Topless Tombstones' Punctuate a Remote Desert Landscape." 
Archaeology 55:5 (2002): 54-59. 

Brown, Rebecca M. "The Cemeteries and the Suburbs: Patna's Challenges to 
the Colonial City in South Asia." Journal of Urban History 29:2 (2003): 
151-172. 

Burton, Diana. "Public Memorials, Private Virtues: Women on Classical 
Athenian Grave Monuments." Mortality 8:1 (2003): 20-35. 

Butterfield, Andrew. "Monuments and Memories." The New Republic (February 
03, 2003): 27-31. 

Capozzola, Christopher. "A Very American Epidemic: Memory Politics and 
Identity Politics in the AIDS Memorial Quilt, 1985-1993." Radical 
History Review 82:1 (2002): 91-109. 

Carlock, Marty. "Boston: 'Spirits in the Trees'- Forest Hills Cemetery." 
Sculpture 22:4 (May 2003): 78-80. 

Castro, J. G. "Making the Personal Monumental: A Conversation with Patricia 
Cronin; Cronin's Recent Marble Memorial Sculpture is Heroic in Size, 
Scale, and Theme." Sculpture 22:1 (2003): 40-45. 

Chapman, Robert. "Death, Society and Archaeology: The Social Dimensions of 
Mortuary Practices." Mortality 8:3 (2003): 305-312. 

Charola, A. E. "Authenticity in the Restoration of Monuments: A 

Commented Report on the WTA Colloquium held at the Katholieke 
Universiteit Leuven, March 14th, 2003." Internationale Zeitschrift fiir 

Bauinstandsetzen = International Journal for Restoration of Buildings and 
Monuments 9:2 (2003): 139-148. 

Cohn, David. "Between Earth and Sky: A Mortuary Under Water Creates an 
Otherworldly Realm for Mourning." Architectural Record 190:7 (July 
2002): 92-97. 

Crawford, Sybil F. "Gravemarker Symbolism: Emblems of Belief." Stone in 

America, 116:2 (March/ April 2003): 15-17, 20-21. [Rpt. from the AGS 
Newsletter]. 

Crawford, Sybil F. "The Thomas Foster Mausoleum: Canada's Taj Mahal." 
Markers XX (2003): 154-191. 

Cummings, Vicki, and Alasdair Whittle. "Research: Tombs with a View- 
Landscape, Monuments and Trees." Antiquity 77:296 (2003): 255-266. 

Denton, Margaret Fields. "Death in French Arcady: Nicolas Poussin's The 

Arcadian Shepherds and Burial Reform in France c. 1800." Eighteenth- 
Century Studies 36:2 (2003): 195-216. 



204 



Dezso, Andrea. "Not Grey Gardens." Print (New York, N.Y.) 56:3 (2002): 106-111. 

Doring, Tobias. "Travelling in Transience: The Semiotics of Necro-Tourism." 
In Berghoff, Hartmut, et al., eds. Tlie Making of Modern Tourism: Hie 
Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600-2000. London, England: 
Palgrave, 2002: 249-266. 

Evener, Connie. "Carving a Life from Stone: On a Road Less-Travelled, a 

California Memorialist Follows His Bliss [Gene Chapman]. Stone in 
America 116:1 (Jan./Feb. 2003): 17-19, 22-24. 

. "Etching Symphonies in Stone" [profiles of monument 

designers Randy Wesley and Roy Dixon]. Stone in America 116:3 (May/ 
June 2003): 6-9. 

. "Noble in Character, Worthy in Deeds: Equine Mystique and 



Memorials Flourish [based on interviews with Lucy Zeh and Gary 
Collison]." Stone in America 116:5 (Sept./Oct. 2003): 17-19, 22-23. 

'Taps for a Military Cemetery: The Closing of Kansas' Fort 



Riley Post Cemetery Marks the End of an Era [based on interview 
with Roger Adams]." Stone in America 116:5 (Sept./Oct. 2003): 6-9. 

Flake, Kathleen. "Re-placing Memory: Latter-day Saint Use of Historical 
Monuments and Narrative in the Early Twentieth Century." 
Religion & American Culture 13:1 (2003): 69-109. 

Foster, Gary S., and Craig M. Eckert. "Up from the Grave: A Sociohistorical 
Reconstruction of an African American Community from Cemetery 
Data in the Rural Midwest." Journal of Black Studies 33:4 (2003): 
468-489. 

Francis, Doris. "Cemeteries as Cultural Landscapes." Mortality 8:2 (2003): 
222-227. 

Frank, Christoph, et al. "Diderot, Guiard and Houdon: Projects for a Funerary 
Monument at Gotha I." The Burlington Magazine 144:1189 (2002): 
213-222. 

Garval, Michael. "'A Dream of Stone': Fame, Vision, and the Monument in 

Nineteenth-Century French Literary Culture." College Literature 30:2 
(2003): 82-119. 

Geddes, Jane. "The Search for John Tresilian: Jane Geddes Investigates the 
Remarkable Ironwork of the Gates of the Tomb of Edward IV." 
History Today 52 (April 2002): 40-46. 

Glover, Troy. "The Story of the Queen Smith Memorial Garden: Resisting a 
Dominant Cultural Narrative." Journal of Leisure Research 35:2 (2003): 
190-212. 

Gough, P. "Tnvicta Pax' Monuments, Memorials and Peace: An Analysis of the 
Canadian Peacekeeping Monument, Ottawa." International Journal of 
Heritage Studies 8:3 (2002): 201-223. 



205 



Guthke, Karl S. "Do-It- Yourself Immortality: Writing One's Own Epitaph." 
Markers XX (2003): 110-153. 

Hamscher, Albert N. "On Teaching: Talking Tombstones: History in the 
Cemetery." Magazine of History 17: 2 (2003): 40-45. 

Hope, V. "Burial, Society and Context in the Roman World." The Classical 
Review 52:2 (2002): 348-349. 

Hope, Valerie M. "Trophies and Tombstones: Commemorating the Roman 
Soldier." World Archaeology 35:1 (2003): 79-97. 

Horlyck, Charlotte. "Tracking Chronological Change in Korean Burials of the 
Koryo Period." Journal of East Asian Archaeology 3:3/4 (2002): 199-218. 

Howe, Robert F. "Monumental Achievement: Twenty Years after the Unveiling 
of Her Controversial Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Architect Maya Lin 
Looks beyond the Wall." Smithsonian 33:8 (2002): 90-99. 

Hung, Wu. "A Case of Cultural Interaction: House-shaped Sarcophagi of the 
Northern Dynasties." Orientations 33:5 (May 2002): 34-41. 

Hutson, Scott R. "Built Space and Bad Subjects: Domination and Resistance at 
Monte Alban, Oaxaca, Mexico." Journal of Social Archaeology 2:1 (2002): 
53-80. 

Imai, Nobuo. "Earthquake: A Consideration of Monuments Erected in the 
Stricken Area." Soshioroji 47:2 (2002), 89-127. 

Imazhanov, Nurgali. "On the Architecture of the Mausoleum of Hodja Akhmed 
Iasavi: Geometric Themes and Motifs." Izvestiia Natsional'noi Akademii 
Nauk Respubliki Kazakhstan (Seriia Obshchestvennykh Nauk) 236:1 
(2002): 268-79. 

Immerzeel, Mat. "A Day at the Sarcophagus Workshop." Visual Resources 19:1 
(Mar. 2003): 43-55. 

Itzkan, Seth J. "From 'Visionary Vermont' to Robert Hayes Memorial. The 

Juxtaposition of Triumph and Terrorism." Futures 35:8 (2003): 883-888. 

Janiak, Ann Corcoran. "Carving Letters [profile of Richard Gransby]." Stone in 
America 116: 3 (May/June 2003): 31-34. 

. "From Heliots to Hill: A Linguist Studies Memorials 

of Greek Immigrants to Learn about their Acculturation to America 
[based on interview with Cornelia Paraskevas]." Stone in America 
116:5 (Sept./Oct. 2003): 25-28. 

Johnson, Nuala. "Mapping Monuments: The Shaping of Public Space and 
Cultural Identities." Visual Communication 1:3 (2002): 293-298. 

Johnston, Steven. "The Architecture of Democratic Monuments." Strategies: 
Journal ofTlieory, Culture & Politics 15:2 (2002): 197-218. 

Joo, Kang-hyun. "Customs for the Dead: Ancestral Memorial Rites." Koreana 
16:4 (Winter 2002): 18-23. 



206 



Kelleher, Margaret. "Hunger and History: Monuments to the Great Irish 
Famine." Textual Practice 16:2 (2002): 249-276. 

Kimball, Jacqueline. "A New Look at American Graveyard Humor [based 
on interview with Richard E. Meyer]." Stone in America 116:5 
(Sept./ Oct. 2003), 11-15. 

Kimball, Jacqueline. "A Week, a Workshop, a World of Ideas [profile of The 
Carving Studio and Sculpture Center's workshop]." Stone in America 
116:3 (May/June 2003), 25-29. 

. "Designing on a Budget: Tips for Reining in Costs without 

Compromising Design." Stone in America 116:1 (Jan./Feb. 2003), 11-15. 

Krzyzanowska, M, et al. "An Atypical Burial at the Gothic Cemetery in 

Maslomecz, Lublin Province (Poland)." TJte Mankind Quarterly 43: 4 
(2003): 357-376. 

Laqueur, Thomas Walter. "The Places of the Dead in Modernity." In The Age of 
Cultural Revolutions: Britain and France, 1750-1820, ed. Colin Jones et al. 
Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002. 

Laviolette, Patrick. "Landscape Death: Resting Places for Cornish Identity." 
Journal of Material Culture 8:2 (2003): 215-240. 

L'Oste-Brown, Scott. "Aboriginal Bark Burial: 700 Years of Mortuary Tradition 
on the Central Queensland Highlands." Australian Aboriginal Studies 
1 (2002): 43-50. 

Low, Polly. "Trophies and Tombstones: Commemorating the Roman Soldier." 
World Archaeology 35:1 (2003): 98-111. 

Luti, Vincent F. "Eighteenth Century Gravestone Carvers of the Upper 
Narragansett Basin: Gabriel Allen." Markers XX (2003): 76-109. 

Lynch, Gay. "'...do not go and leave me behind unwept...': Greek Gravemarkers 
Heed the Warning." Markers XX (2003): 280-301. 

Maritan, L; Mazzoli, C; Melis, E. "A Multidisciplinary Approach to the 

Characterization of Roman Gravestones from Aquileia (Udine, Italy)." 
Archaeometry 45:3 (2003): 363-374. 

Maylam, Paul. "Monuments, Memorials and the Mystique of Empire: The 

Immortalisation of Cecil Rhodes in the Twentieth Century." African 
Sociological Review/Revue Africaine de Sociologie 6:1 (2002): 138-147. 

Merridale, Catherine. "Revolution Among the Dead: Cemeteries in Twentieth- 
Century Russia." Mortality 8:2 (2003): 176-188. 

Meyer, Harvey. "The Northwest Report: Northwest Granite Association 

Members Talk about Significant Industry Trends." Stone in America 
116:1 (Jan./Feb. 2003), 26-31. 

Meyer, Lotte Larsen. "Mourning in a Distant Land: Gold Star Pilgrimages to 

American Military Cemeteries in Europe, 1930-33." Markers XX (2003): 
30-75. 



207 



Meyer, Richard E. "'Pardon Me for Not Standing': Modern American 

Graveyard Humor." In Of Corpse: Death and Humor in Folklore and 
Popular Culture. Ed. Peter Naravez. Logan, UT: Utah State University 
Press, 2003: 140-168; 321-322. 

. "The Year's Work in Cemetery/ Gravemarker Studies: An 

International Bibliography." Markers XX (2003): 333-390. 

Mio, Minoru. "Formation and Its Avoidance of Identity Politics in the 

Mausoleums: Ethnographical Considerations on the Mausoleums 
Related with the Sufism in the Mewar Region of Rajasthan, India." 
Bulletin of the National Museum of Ethnology (Osaka) 26:4 (2002): 
603-662. " 

Molinari, Luca. "Ripensare lo Spazio Pubblico: due Progetti Cimiteriali / 

Rethinking Public Space: Two Cemetery Designs." Abitare 424 (Jan. 
2003): 116-121. 

Murray, Lisa. "'Modern Innovations?' Ideal vs. Reality in Colonial Cemeteries 
of Nineteenth-Century New South Wales." Mortality 8:2 (2003): 129- 
143. 

Naldi, Ricardo, and Judith Landry. "The Rest of the Warrior: The Cardona 
Funerary Monument." FMR 122 (June/July 2003): 103-128. 

Nichol, Shannon, Karen May, and Erik Lees. "Are 'Ecocemeteries' a Viable 

Option? Pros and Cons." Landscape Architecture 92:12 (Dec. 2002): 9-12. 

O'Brien, K. "Language, Monuments, and the Politics of Memory in Quebec and 
Ireland." Eire-Ireland: A Journal of Irish Studies 38:1/2 (2003): 141-160. 

Pearce, D. G. "The Tierkloof Painted Burial Stones." South African Journal of 
Science 99:3 (2003): 125-126. 

Petersen, Lauren Hackworth. "The Baker, His Tomb, His Wife, and Her 

Breadbasket: The Monument of Eurysaces in Rome." The Art Bulletin 
85:2 (June 2003): 230-257. 

Pollack, M. S. "Intentions of Burial: Mourning, Politics, and Memorials 

Following the Massacre at Srebrenica." Death Studies 27:2 (2003): 125- 
142. 

Pursell, Timothy. "'The Burial of the Future': Modernist Architecture and 

the Cremationist Movement in Wilhelmine Germany." Mortality 8:3 
(2003): 233-250. 

Purviniene, Marija. "The 20th Century Gravestone Monuments in the District 

of Klaipeda [Lithuania]: The Development of Ethnical Traits." Liaudies 
Kultura 5 (2002): 27-31. 

Queiroz, Francisco, and Julie Rugg. "The Development of Cemeteries in 
Portugal C.1755-C.1870." Mortality 8:2 (2003): 113-128. 

Richards, Janet. "Time and Memory in Ancient Egyptian Cemeteries." 
Expedition 44:3 (2002): 16-25. 



Robbins, Michelle. "Rooted in Memory: Are the Old Trees in your Town War 
Memorials?" American Forests 109:1 (2003): 38-49. 

Roehrig, Catharine H. "The Servant in the Place of Truth." The Metropolitan 
Museum of Art Bulletin 60:1 (Summer 2002): 40-57. 

Sedore, T. S. "Tell the Southrons We Lie Here': The Rhetoric of Consummation 
in Southern Epitaphs and Elegies of Post-Civil War America." Tlie 
Southern Quarterly 41:4 (2003): 144-162. 

Sharp, Michele Turner. "Elegy Unto Epitaph: Print Culture and 

Commemorative Practice in Gray's 'Elegy Written in a Country 
Churchyard.'" Papers on Language & Literature 38:1 (2002): 3-28. 

Spera, Lucrezia. "The Christianization of Space along the Via Appia: Changing 
Landscape in the Suburbs of Rome." American Journal of Archaeology 
107:1 (Jan. 2003): 23-43. 

Stott, Annette. "The Woodmen of the World Monument Program." Markers XX 
(2003): vi, 1-29. 

Thompson, J. William. "A Natural Death." Landscape Architecture 92:10 (Oct. 
2002): 74-79; 134-137. 

. "Almost Another Country." Landscape Architecture 93:7 

(July 2003): 66-75, 101-104. 

Thursby, Jacqueline S. "Mormon Temple Reproductions on Cemetery 
Markers." Markers XX (2003): 312-333. 

Tweed, Thomas A. "Our Lady of Guadeloupe Visits the Confederate 
Memorial." Southern Cultures 8:2 (2002): 72-93. 

Veksler, A. G. "The Tomb-Stone of a 'Boiar-Stol'nik' from the Epoch of Peter the 
Great." Rossiiskaia Arkheologiia 1 (2002): 167-168. 

Vinitzky-Seroussi, Vered. "Commemorating a Difficult Past: Yitzhak Rabin's 
Memorials." Journal of Planning Literature 17:1 (2002): 85-168. 

Wang, Renxiang. "Survey and Study of Tubo Mausoleums at Chong-Gye, 
Tibet." Kaogu Xuebao 4 (2002): 471-492. 

Whitley, James. "Objects with Attitude: Biographical Facts and Fallacies in 
the Study of Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age Warrior Graves." 

Cambridge Archaeological Journal 12:2 (2002): 217-232. 

William, J. "Almost Another Country: On the Current State of New Orleans 
Parks, Gardens, and Cemeteries." Landscape Architecture 93:7 (2003): 
66-75. 

Wilson, Jean. "The Authorship of the Fryer Monument at Harlton, 

Cambridgeshire, and the Yelverton Monument at Easton Maudit, 
Northamptonshire." The Burlington Magazine 144 (Dec. 2002): 735-739. 

Wright, Elizabethada. "Reading the Cemetery: Lieu de memoire par 
excellance." Rhetoric Society Quarterly 33:2 (2003): 27-44. 



209 



Young, James. "Germany's Holocaust Memorial Problem — and Mine." 
The Public Historian 24:4 (2002): 65-80. 

Dissertations and Theses 

Borowicz, James Julian. "Images of Power and the Power of Images: 

Iconography of Stelae As An Indicator of Socio-Political Events in 
the Early Classic Maya Lowlands (Guatemala)." Ph.D. diss., State 
University of New York at Buffalo, 2003. 

Brooks, Sarah Tyler. "Commemoration of the Dead: Late Byzantine Tomb 

Decoration (Mid-Thirteenth to Mid-Fifteenth Centuries)." Ph.D. diss., 
New York University, 2002. 

Cassidy, Nora Ruecker. "Landscape and Memory: Thomas Cole's 'The 

Architect's Dream' and Woodlawn Cemetery, Toledo, Ohio." M.L.S. 
thesis, University of Toledo, 2002. 

Cheng, Bonnie. "Fabricating Life out of Death: Sixth Century [Chinese] 

Funerary Monuments and the Negotiation of Cultural Traditions." 
Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 2003. 

Coleman, Sarah Elizabeth. "Healing at the Wall: the Vietnam Veterans 
Memorial." Ph.D. diss., Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2002. 

Cooney, Kathlyn Mary. "The Value of Private Funerary Art in Ramesside 
Period Egypt." Ph.D. diss., Johns Hopkins University, 2003. 

Crowder, Linda Sun. "Mortuary Practices and the Construction of Chinatown 
Identity." Ph.D. diss., University of Hawaii, 2002. 

Dramer, Kim Irene Nedra. "Between the Living and the Dead: Han Dynasty 

Stone Carved Tomb Doors (China)." Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 
2002. 

Farhat, May. "Islamic Piety and Dynastic Legitimacy: the Case of the Shrine of 
'Ali B. Musa Al-Rida in Mashhad (10th -17th Century) (Iran)." Ph.D. 
diss., Harvard University, 2002. 

Fauci, Donna J. "Holocaust Memorials: Places of Memory, Sites of Destruction, 
Monuments and Museums." M.A. thesis, College of Staten Island, 
2003. 

Fowkes, Reuben. "Monumental Sculpture in Post-War Eastern Europe, 1945- 
1960 (Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria)." Ph.D. diss., University of Essex 
(UK), 2002. 

Frohne, Andrea E. "The African Burial Ground in New York City: Manifesting 
and Representing Spirituality of Space." Ph.D. diss., Binghamton 
University, State University of New York, 2002. 

Garman, Alex G. "The Cult of the Matronae in the Roman Rhineland." Ph.D. 
diss., University of Missouri-Columbia, 2002. 

Gerding, Henrik. "The Tomb of Caecilia Metella: Tumulus, Tropaeum and 



210 



Thymele (Italy, Roman Empire)." Ph.D. diss., Lunds Universitet 
(Sweden), 2002. 

Goode-Null, Susan Kay. "Slavery's Children: A Study of Growth and 

Childhood Sex Ratios in the New York African Burial Ground." Ph.D. 
diss., University of Massachusetts/ Amherst, 2002. 

Halevi, Leor E. "Muhammad's Grave: Death, Ritual and Society in the Early 
Islamic World." Ph.D. diss., Harvard University, 2002. 

Heyn, Maura Keane. "Social Relations and Material Culture Patterning in the 
Roman Empire: A Juxtaposition of East and West (Syria, France)." 
Ph.D. diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 2002. 

Klahr, Douglas Mark. "The Kaiser Builds in Berlin: Expressing National 

and Dynastic Identity in the Early Building Projects of Wilhelm II 
(Germany)." Ph.D. diss., Brown University, 2002. 

Lai, Guolong. "The Baoshan Tomb: Religious Transitions in Art, Ritual, and 
Text During the Warring States Period (480-221 BCE) (China)." 
Ph.D. diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 2002. 

Laos, Nora Edith. "Provencal Baptisteries: Early Christian Origins and 

Medieval Afterlife (France)." Ph.D. diss., Princeton University, 2002. 

Mc White, Sally Leigh. "Echoes of the Lost Cause: Civil War Reverberations in 
Mississippi from 1865 to 2001." Ph.D. diss., University of Mississippi, 
2002. 

Mitchell, Karen Braden. "Historical Geography Taken from Angelina County 
Cemeteries (Texas)." M.I.S. Ph.D. diss., Stephen F. Austin State 
University, 2002. 

Newstrom, Scott Laine. "Death's Recitation: The Early Modern Epitaph in its 
Generic Contexts." Ph.D. diss., Harvard University, 2002. 

Park, Ah-Rim. "Tomb of the Dancers: Koguryo Tombs in East Asian Funerary 
Art (China)." Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania, 2002. 

Patterson, Allen H. "The Wake Forest Cemetery: Fifty-Two Stones, One 

Thousand Years of Service." M.A. thesis, Wake Forest University, 
2002. 

Pringle, Susanne Ashley. "The Oklahoma City National Memorial Monument: 
Making Meaning through Performance." M.A. thesis, University of 
Texas at Austin, 2003. 

Taylor, Sarah Elizabeth. "Remembering Elderly Women in Early America: A 
Survey of How Aged Women Were Memorialized in Late Eighteenth 
and Early Nineteenth-Century Tombstone Inscriptions, Death Notices, 
Funeral Sermons, and Memoirs." M.A. thesis, Virginia Polytechnic 
Institute and State University, 2002. 

Villareal, Sandra D. "Making Place Out of Space: Memorializing and Mourning 



211 



Unexpected Roadside Deaths." M.A. thesis, University of Colorado at 
Denver, 2002. 

Wilford-Hammett, Rebecca E. "Finding Meaning in a Landscape of Stone: 
The Women of Bellefontaine Cemetery." M.S. thesis, University of 
Missouri-Columbia, 2002. 

Witkovsky, Matthew Stephen. " Avant-Garde and Center: Devetsil in Czech 
Culture, 1918-1938." Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania, 2002. 

Yasin, Ann Marie. "Commemorating the Dead — Constructing the Community: 
Church Space, Monuments and Saints' Cults in Late Antiquity." Ph.D. 
diss., University of Chicago, 2002. 



Video, Cassette Tape, CD, DVD 

Gurda, John. Silent City: A History of Forest Home Cemetery. Milwaukee, WI: 
Wisconsin Regional Library. Cassette tape. 

Hynes, Daniel W. Cemetery and Funeral Consumer Education Program. 
Springfield, IL: State of Illinois Comptroller, 2002. VHS tape. 

Lambert, David Allen. Beyond the Grave: Using Cemetery Records. Boston, MA: 
New England Historic Genealogical Society, 2002. Cassette tape. 

Purdy, Rick; Grant, Trevor. Great Cemeteries of the World. Episode 1: Arlington 
(Arlington National #1); 2: New York (Greenwood Cemetery); 
03: Arlington (Arlington National #2); 4: New York (Woodlawn 
Cemetery); 5: Toronto (Mount Pleasant); 6: Chicago (Graceland); 7: 
Chicago (Rosehill); 8: San Francisco (Cypress Lawn Memorial Park); 9: 
Los Angeles (Hollywood Forever); 10: St. Petersburg, Russia (St. 
Peter & St. Paul Cathedral); 11: St. Petersburg, Russia (Alexander 
Nevsky Monastery, Tikhvin Cemetery); 12: Stockholm, Sweden 
(Nora begravninsplatsen, The Northern Cemetery); 13: Brussels, 
Belgium (Ixelles); 14: Paris (Pere Lanchaise Cemetery #1); 15: Paris 
(Pere Lachaise Cemetery #2); 16: Vienna (Zentralfriedhof, Central 
Cemetery); 17: Florence (Santa Croce); 18: Venice (San Michele 
Cemetery); 19: Bradenton, Florida (Manasota Memorial Park); 20: 
New Orleans, USA (St. Louis #1, Metairie Cemetery); 21: Indianapolis 
(Crown Hill Cemetery); 22: London (Kensal Green Cemetery); 23: 
London, UK (Bunhill Fields Cemetery); 24: Edinburgh (A Tour); 25: 
Dublin, Ireland (Glasnevin Cemetery); 26: Halifax, Canada (Fairview 
Cemetery). Carson City, NV: R.I.P Productions, Inc. [distributed by 
Filmwest Associates], 2002. VHS tapes. 

Sawatzki, Jim. Here Lies Colorado Springs. Palmer Lake, CO: Palmer Divide 
Productions, 2002. VHS tape. 

Trapp, C. Michael. Out of Vie Dust: Stories from the Nauvoo Cemetery. Hurricane, 
UT: The Studio, 2002. Compact disc. 



212 



CONTRIBUTORS 

Mary Ann Ashcraft, a retired teacher and librarian, is pursuing her 
long-time interest in history by volunteering at the Historical Society of 
Carroll County, Maryland. A past president and past newsletter editor 
of the Carroll County Genealogical Society, she has been chairperson 
of the cemetery inscriptions committee since 1981. It was through this 
nearly completed inscription project that she first became aware of the 
gravestones carved by slave and ex-slave Sebastian "Boss" Hammond. 

Ronald A. Bosco, Distinguished Service Professor of English and 
American Literature at the University at Albany, State University of New 
York, and president of the Thoreau Society, has been an editor of the 
Emerson Family Papers at the Houghton Library of Harvard University 
since 1977. Past president of the Ralph Waldo Emerson Society, he and 
Joel Myerson co-chaired the many celebrations of the bicentennial of 
Emerson's birth sponsored by the Society in 2003. 

Elise Madeleine Ciregna, a graduate student at the University 
of Delaware and Winterthur Museum, wrote her Master's thesis at 
Harvard University on nineteenth-century sculpture at Mount Auburn 
Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts. She is continuing her research 
on the connections between nineteenth-century American sculpture and 
cemeteries, and is researching the stonecutting and monument making 
industry in New England, 1780-1880. 

Gary Collison, professor of American Studies and English at 
Penn State York, has given numerous presentations on gravemarkers 
at annual meetings of the American Culture Association and the 
Association for Gravestone Studies and is founder and chair of the Death 
in American Culture section of the Mid- Atlantic Popular/ American 
Culture Association. He is currently researching Pennsylvania German 
gravemarkers. 

Richard Francaviglia, historian and geographer, has written 
numerous books and articles about the way the American landscape 
has changed through time and how this change is depicted in maps, 



213 



literature, and popular culture. He has taught at the University of 
Minnesota, Antioch College, University of Arizona, and Wittenberg 
University. Currently at the University of Texas at Arlington, he is a 
professor of history and director of the Center for Greater Southwestern 
Studies and the History of Cartography. 

David Gradwohl, professor emeritus of anthropology at Iowa 
State University, lists as his principal research interest the relationship 
of ethnicity and material culture. A past president of the Plains 
Anthropological Society, he is currently a member of the board of 
editors of the National Association for Ethnic Studies and of the board 
of directors of the Iowa Jewish Historical Society. His articles on the 
Jewish cemeteries of St. Louis, the Presidio pet cemetery (with Richard 
E. Meyer), American Indian cemetery symbols, and Sephardic Jewish 
cemeteries have appeared in Markers X, XII, XIV and XV. 

Henry Hughes has run thousands of miles through cemeteries in 
New York, Indiana, and Oregon. His first collection of poetry, Men 
Holding Eggs, was published this year by Mammoth Press. 

Tom and Brenda Malloy have presented many scholarly papers, 
individually and jointly, at annual meetings of the American Culture 
Association and the Association for Gravestone Studies. Tom holds a 
Doctorate of Education from the University of Massachusetts/ Amherst 
and is a professor emeritus at Mount Wachusett Community College. 
He is currently vice president of the AGS board of trustees. Brenda, a 
retired teacher from Westminster Elementary School, has served on the 
AGS board. Their co-authored articles have appeared in Markers IX, XI, 
XIV, and XVI. 

Joel Myerson, Carolina Distinguished Professor of American 
Literature at the University of South Carolina at Columbia, is a leading 
authority on Emerson and his circle. Past president of the Ralph Waldo 
Emerson Society, he and Ron Bosco co-chaired the many celebrations of 
the bicentennial of Emerson's birth sponsored by the Society in 2003. 



214 



INDEX 

Boldface page numbers [in brackets] indicate illustrations. 



Abenaki Indians 41 

Adams Memorial (sculpture) 137 

Adams, Henry 137 

Albany Rural Cemetery, Menands, NY 

145n25, 149 
Albany, NY 115 
Alcott, Bronson 159, 164 
Alcott, Louisa May v, 164, [151, 166] 
Alexander, Francis 112 
Allegheny Cemetery, Pittsburgh, PA 140 
Algiers 71 

Allston, Washington 101 
American Academy of Fine Arts, NY 105 
American Notes for General Circulation 116 
Amos Binney Monument (sculpture) 121, 

123, 125-126,133, [122, 124, 125] 
Amsterdam, Holland 71 
Angel at the Sepulchre, Vie (sculpture) 

145n25 
Angel of Death Staying the Hand (sculpture) 

133, [136] 
Angel of Grief (or Death) (sculpture) 130, 

133 
Angel of Resurrection (sculpture) 130 
Angier, L.H. 156 
Annapolis, MD 13 
Annenberg Hall 138 
Antique Statue Gallery, Philadelphia, PA 

105 
Appleton, ME 139 
Arminius, Jacobus 171 
Atlanta, GA 149 
Austin, TX 9, 11 
Australia 9 
Authors' Ridge, Concord, MA v, 163, 

[153, 160, 161, 163, 167] 

Backwoodsman, The (sculpture) 116 

Baile family 30 

Baile, Michael 36 

Baile, William [12] 

Ball, Thomas 106, 133, 139, [132] 

Ballou, Hosea 140 

Baltimore, MD 13, 39 

Banks, Thomas 113 

Bartlett, George B. 149-150 



Bartolini, Lorenzo 106, 113 
Bath, ME 139 

Beers, Captain Richard 45-46, [42] 
Belmont Mausoleum, Woodlawn 

Cemetery, Bronx, NY [98] 
Bennett family 30 
Benson, Nicholas 27 
Berkley, MA 43 
Bible 70, 77, 90, 109 
Bigelow Chapel 126, 130, 138 
Bigelow, Jacob 107, 133, 136 
Binney Child, The (sculpture) 113-116, 137, 

139, [112] 
Binney, Amos 121, 123, [122, 124, 125] 
Binney, Emily 112-114, 137 
Binney, Mary Ann 121, 123 
Bloody Brook 46, 48, [42, 47] 
Bloody Brook Monument 46 
Bobbett, Edward 43, [42, 43] 
Bonham, Malakiah 17, [cover, 22] 
Boston Athenaeum 105, 107, 116-117, 121 
Boston Bar Association 5 
Boston Daily Evening Transcript 111, 116, 

125, 140 
Boston Public Garden 133 
Boston, MA 3-6, 45, 52, 55, 62, 67, 72-75, 

78, 90-91, 101-102, 105, 107, 111-114, 

116-117, 120-121, 125-126, 133, 139-141 
Brackett, Edward Augustus 106, 140 
Bradstreet, Rev. 75 
Brattle Street Church, Boston, MA 72 
Brimsmead, Reverend William 55 
Bristol, RI 63 

Brocklebank, Captain Samuel 56-58 
Bronx, NY 99, [98] 
Brookline, MA 57-58 
Brown, Deacon Reuben 150-151 
Brown, Henry Kirke 139 
Bull, Ephraim Wales 164 
Bunker Hill Monument, Charlestown, MA 

116 
Buser, Frederick 30, [31] 
Buss, Rachel [155] 
Bychkova, Bella 11 

California 130, 170 



215 



Calvary Cemetery, St. Louis, MO 130 
Cambridge, MA 73-74, 77, 84, 91, 103, 107, 

116, 117, 149 
Cambridge University, UK 72 
Campo Verano Cemetery, Rome 133 
Carew, Thomas 120, [119] 
Carroll County, MD 13, 15, 17, 30, 33, 36, 

[19,25,29,31] 
Cary, Alpheus 112-113 
Cassell, Rosanna 30, 36-37 
Cassard family 170 

Cedar Hill Cemetery, Hartford, CT 130 
Central Falls, RI 54-55 
Central Park, New York, NY 137 
Charming, Ellery 156-157, 159-160, 162, 

164 
Chantrey, Francis 113 
Chapel of Saint Hubert, Chateau Amboise, 

France [98] 
Charlestown, MA 77 
Chase Woodland Preserve 5 
Chase, Dorothea Newman 3, 5-6 
Chase, Frederick Hathaway 4 
Chase, Theodore (Ted) iv, 1-7 [viii] 
Chester Rural Cemetery, Chester, PA 139 
Chickering Monument (sculpture) 133, [132] 
Church, Captain Benjamin 63-64, [64] 
Cincinnati, OH 139 
Cistercian Order 55 
Civil War 133, 136, 155 
Cleveland, Horace William Shaler 150, 

154, 162-163 
College Hall, Harvard University 72, 90 
Colma, CA 130 

Colman, Reverend Benjamin 72-73, 75 
Colonial American Jew, Tlie 90 
Colt, Samuel 130,139 
Columbia University 72 
Columbus, MS 130 
Concord Agricultural Society, 

Concord, MA 168 
Concord Court House, Concord, MA 168 
Concord Free Public Library 155 
"Concord Hymn" 155 
Concord Lyceum, Concord, MA 155 
Concord School of Philosophy 159 
Concord, MA v-vi, 3-4, 53, 149-171 
Connecticut 49, 52, 60, 112 
Connecticut River 60 



Copeland, Robert Morris 150, 154, 163 

Copley Square, Boston, MA 137 

Copley, John Singleton 101 

Council of the Boston Bar Association 5 

Crawford, Sybil F. 130 

Crawford, Thomas 106, 121, 123, 125, 127, 

130, 133, 137, 139, 140, [122, 124, 125, 

129] 
Culbreth, Renial 34n 
Culsworth, James 41 
Cumberland, RI 54-55 
Cunningham, Ami 1 
Cypress Lawn Cemetery, Colma, CA 130 

Dallas, TX 9 

Damascus, Syria 87 

Daniel Henchman Shop 73 

Dartmouth College 72 

Davidson, James W. 87 

Deacon Haynes Garrison House 55 

Dearborn, Nathaniel 119, [112] 

Deerfield, MA 46, [47] 

Democratic Advocate 33 

Detroit, MI 130, 139 

Devilbiss, Levi 30, 36 

Dexter, Henry 106, 112-116, 120, 139 

Dexter' s Ledge 54 

Dickdook Leshon Gnebreet: A Grammar of the 

Hebrew Tongue 76 
Dickens, Charles 116 
Dimmick, Lauretta 121 
Dodge, Robert 4 
Dover Church, Dover, MA 7 
Dover, MA 1-3,7 

Downing, Andrew Jackson 120, 137 
Drach family 30 
Dudley, Abigail 160 
Dwight, John 1 

Edmondson, William 34n 

Egyptian burials vi, 165, 167 

Eliot, Samuel 72,113 

Elizabeth W. Meads Memorial (sculpture) 

109 
Elmira, NY 139 
Eloquence (sculpture) 140 
Emerson, Charles Chauncy 152 
Emerson, Ellen [169] 
Emerson, Lidian (Lydia Jackson) 152 



216 



Emerson, Mary Moody 152 

Emerson, Edward Waldo 164 

Emerson, Ralph Waldo v-vi, 149-171, [148, 

157, 161, 162, 169] 
Emerson, Ruth Haskins 152 
England 6, 51 
Essex, MA 46, 48 
Everett, Edward 107, 140 

Fairmount Cemetery, Libertytown, MD 

[19, 20] 
Fairview United Methodist Cemetery, MD 

33,37 
Falls Church, VA 139 
Finland 9 

First Church, Cambridge, MA 73 
First Parish Church, Northborough, MA 

67-68, 78-79, 91, [66, 67] 
Five Little Peppers and How Tliey Grew 164 
Flaxman, John 106 
Flight of the Spirit (sculpture) 130, 133, 

[131] 
Florence, Italy 106, 117 
Forbes, Harriette Merrifield 1, 6, 70, 79-80 
Forest Hills Cemetery, Boston, MA 116, 

120, 133, 139, [138] 
Forest Park Lawndale Cemetery, Houston, 

TX 130 
Foy, Florvill 34n 
Frazee, John 104 
Frederick County, MD 13-15, 17, 27, 30, 

33, 36, 38, [16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 27, 

29] 
French, Daniel Chester 133, 164, [133] 
French, Stanley 104 

Friendship Cemetery, Columbus, MS 130 
Frost, Barzillai 156 

Gabel, Laurel K. 1, 6, 77, 79, 85 
Gallup Family Association 51 
Gallup, Captain John 51-52 
"Garden Cemetery and American 

Sculpture: Mount Auburn, The" 103 
Gardner, Frank 116 
George Hill 52 

George Washington (sculpture) 104, 117, 123 
George Washington (sculpture by Ball) 133 
Gettysburg National Military Park, 

Gettysburg, PA 139 



Gill, MA 62, [60] 

Glenwood Cemetery, Houston, TX 130 

Goldman, Shalom 77 

Goodenow Garrison House 56 

Gott, Joseph 120, [118] 

Grace Church, Utica, NY 114 

Grace Williams Memorial (sculpture) 109- 
110, 114, [115] 

Gradwohl, Hanna Rosenberg 68 

Graven Images: New England Stonecarving 
and its Symbols 70 

Gravestone Chronicles I: Some Eighteenth- 
Century Neui England Carvers 6 

Gravestone Chronicles II: More Eighteenth- 
Century New England Carvers 6 

Gravestones of Early Neiv England 3, 70 

Gray, Francis Calley 116, 120, [118] 

Great Swamp, The 48-49, [50, 51] 

Greater Boston United Way 5 

Greek burial 166, 170 

Greek Slave, TJte (sculpture) 123 

Green River, MA 62 

Greenfield, MA 62, [61] 

Greenough, Henry 109 

Greenough, Horatio 105-106, 109, 113, 117, 
119, 123, 137, 139-140 

Greenough, Richard Saltonstall 106, 127 

Green- Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, NY 120, 
130, 140, 149 

Greenwood Church Cemetery [25] 

Greenwood family 30 

Greenwood, Ludwick 36, 38, [25] 

Groton School 4-5 

Guide Through Mount Auburn 119, [112] 

Hadley, MA 46 

Hammond, Area 13, 15 

Hammond, Colonel Thomas 13-15 

Hammond, Marcella 15 

Hammond, Sebastian "Boss" /"Boston"/ 

"Bostion" v, 12-33 
Harnden Monument 120, [119] 
Harriette Merrifield Forbes Award 7 
Hartford, CT 130, 139 
Harvard Law School 4, 138 
Harvard University v, 5, 72, 72, 74-75, 77, 

84-85, 138 
Harvard, MA 4, 79 
Harvey, Peter 113 



217 



Hatfield, MA 62 

Hastings, Daniel 1 

Hawthorne, Nathaniel v, 114, 139, 164, 

[151, 167] 
Haynes, Deacon John 55-56 
Hertzberg, Arthur 90 
Highland Cemetery, Dover, MA 1, 7 
His Pony (sculpture) 121 
Hoar, Ebenezer Rockwood 164 
Hoar, Elizabeth Sherman 152 
Hoar, John 53 
Hoar, Samuel 164 
Hoar, Sherman 164 
Holyoke, Captain Samuel 62 
Hope Cemetery, Worcester, MA 120 
Horticulturist, TJie 120 
Hosmer, Harriet 106, 140 
Houdon, Jean-Antoine 104 
Houston, TX 130 
Hurlbert monument 140 
Hutchinson, Ann 45 
Hutchinson, Edward 45, [42] 
Hygeia (sculpture) 133, [134] 

Iberia 71 

Italy 106, 117, 121, 127, 166 

J.N. (carver) 30, 33, [31] 

Jackson, Lydia (see Emerson, Lidian) 

Jamaica 71 

James Otis (sculpture) 127, 138, [129] 

James, Henry 139 

Jefferson, Thomas 104 

Jefferson, William Henry (Taylor) 34n 

Jerusalem 88 

Jews of Boston, Tlie 90 

John Adams (sculpture) 127, 138, [129] 

John Stevens Shop, Newport, RI 27, 34 

John Winthrop (sculpture) 127, 138, [128] 

Jordan (-Bychkov), Terry 9-11, [8] 

Joesph Story (sculpture) 127, 138, [128] 

Kansas 116 
Kent, Josiah C. 67 
Keyes, John Shepard 164 
Kiler family 30 

King Philip 41, 53, 55-56, 62-63, [40] 
King Philip's War 40-65 
King's Chapel Burying Ground, 
Boston, MA 4 



Kyle, Theodora 4 

Lamsons/Lamson Shop 1, 77 

Lancaster, MA 52-54 

Landman, Isaac 87 

Lathrop, Captain Thomas 46, 48, [47] 

Laurel Hill Cemetery, Philadelphia, PA 
120-121 

Leghorn (Livorno), Italy 71, 125 

Leland Company, NYC 130 

Lewis, Edmonia 106, 133, [134] 

Liberty District, Frederick County, MD 13, 
[16] 

Lincoln Memorial, DC 133, 164 

Lincoln, Abraham v, 164 

Linden-Ward, Blanche 102, 110 

Lindsay, John 19, 27, 36, [21] 

Linganore U.M. Cemetery, Unionville, MD 
[21-23] 

Little Compton, RI 63, [64] 

Little, M. Ruth 34 

Little Rock, AK 130 

Logic of Millennial Thought: Eighteenth- 
Century New England, Tlte 87 

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth 133 

Lothrop, Harriet Mulford 164 

Louvre, Paris, France 105 

Ludwig, Allan 6, 70, 80-81, 83-84 

Luti, Vincent 34 

Lynchburg, VA 34 

Maddock, Steven H. [148] 
Magruder, Nathan 38, [27] 
Main Street Burial Ground, Concord, MA 

150, [153] 
Marble Faun, The 139 
Marcus, Rabbi Jacob R. 71, 73, 77, 89-90 
Marlborough, MA 45, 55-56 
Marrett, Edward 74 
Marrett, Hannah 74 
Marston, MD 36-39, [28] 
Martyn, Mary Marrett 78 
Martyn, Reverend John 67, 78, 83, [67] 
Maryland v, 2, 12-39 
Massachusetts Bar Association 5 
Massachusetts Bay Colony 127 
Massachusetts Board of Regional 

Community Colleges 5 
Massachusetts Historical Society 6 



218 



Massasoit 41 

Mather, Cotton v, 72, 75, 79, 88-90 

Mather, Increase 72-73, 89-90 

Matteson, Tompkins H. 107-109, 114, [108] 

Maxcy (carver) 6 

McEachin, Issiah 34n 

Melville, Herman 99 

Mendon, MA 44, [42] 

Metacom (see King Philip) 

Michael Haines Family Cemetery 30 

Middleborough, MA 44 

Middlesex County, MA 74 

Miller, Francis 44, [42] 

Miller, John 44, [42] 

Milmore, Martin 120, 133, 136, 139, [135, 

136] 
Milton, MA 57-58 
Mississippi 34 
Mohegan Indians 52 
Monastery Grounds, Cumberland, RI 54- 

55 
Monis, Abigail Marrett 74, 77, [78] 
Monis, Judah v, 67-91, [67, 69, 80, 82, 83, 

86, 87] 
Morison, Samuel Eliot 72, 76 
Morocco 71 

"Moses, A Witness Unto our Lord . . ." 72 
Montague-Gill, MA 60 
Mount Auburn Cemetery v, 101-141, 149 
Mount Hermon School, Northfield, MA 5 
Mount Wachusett 53 
Mountfort Monument 116 
Muddy Brook, South Deerfield, MA 46 
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA 102, 

117, 137 
Myles Garrison House 41 

Narragansett Indians 41, 48, 49, 52, 54 
National Memorial Park, Falls Church, 

VA 139 
Nature (Ralph Waldo Emerson) 154 
"New Adam and New Eve" 114 
New Braintree, MA 45, 52 
New England Courant 71, 73 
New England Historic Genealogical 

Society 6 
New Hill Cemetery, Concord, MA 150 
New Testament 85 
New Windsor, MD 30, [12, 25, 31] 
New York, NY 71, 91, 120, 130, 140-141 



New, John 1 

Newport, MD 15,33 

Newport, RI 27, 34n, 91 

New-York Commercial Advertiser 125 

Nine Men's Misery 54 

Nipmuck Indians 41, 44-46, 52 

Nomenclatura hebraica 76-77 

North American Rancliing Frontiers 10 

North Attleborough, MA 58-60, [59] 

North Carolina 34n 

North Kingston, RI 49-51, [51] 

Northborough, MA 67-68, 70, 78-79, 91, 

[78] 
Northfield, MA 5,45 
Nusbaum, Amy [23] 

Oak Grove Cemetery, Bath, ME 139 
Oakland Cemetery, Little Rock, AR 130 
Ockoocangansett Plantation 55 
"Ode on the Consecration of Sleepy 

Hollow Cemetery" 156-157 
Old Hill Burying Ground, Concord, MA 

150 
Old Manse, Concord, MA 3, 152 
Old Mortality (sculpture) 121 
Old North Bridge, Concord, MA 4, 162 
Old Testament 81, 83, 85, 88 
Olmsted, Frederick Law 137 
Orchard House, Concord, MA 162 
Oregon 170 

Orpheus and Cerberus (sculpture) 121, 123 
Oxford University, UK 72 

Palmer and Dodge (law firm) 4 
Palmer, Erastus Dow 106-109, 114-115, 

120, 123, [108, 115] 
Paris, FR 117 

Park, William 70, 79, 81, [69] 
Paul, Apostle 81, 88 
Pawtucket Falls, RI 54 
Peabody, Elizabeth Palmer 159-160, 164 
Pennsylvania 24 
Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, 

Philadelphia, PA 105 
Pentateuch 75 

Perkins Dog (sculpture) 117, 119-121, [118] 
Perkins, Colonel Thomas Handasyd 107, 

113, 116-117 
Perkins, Thomas Handasyd, Jr. 117 
Perkins, Thomas Handasyd, III 117 



219 



Philadelphia, PA 105, 120, 123 
Pierce, Captain Michael 54-55 
Pin Hill Quarry, Harvard, MA 79 
Pine Grove Cemetery, Appleton, ME 

139 
Pipe Creek Church of the Brethren 

Cemetery 36, 38 
Pittsburgh, PA 140 
Plymouth, MA 63 
Plymouth Colony, MA 45, 51, 54 
Pokanoket-Wampanoags 41 
Pompeii tombs 166 
Portugal 73 

Powers, Edward Everett 140 
Powers, Hiram 123, 140 
Protestant Cemetery, Rome, Italy 130 
Puffer, Mathias 44 
Pukcommeacon River 62 

Quincy, Josiah 138 

Realization of Faith, Tire (sculpture) 133 

Rebecca of Snnnybrook Farm 159 

Redemption Rock 53 

Revere, Paul [40] 

Rhode Island Historical Society 55 

Rhode Island Society of Colonial Wars 63 

Richard Smith's Block House 50 

Ripley, Reverend Dr. Ezra 152 

Rock Creek Cemetery, DC 137 

Rockwood, John 44 

Rogers, Randolph 106, 127, 130, 133, 137, 

139, [129, 131] 
Rome, Italy 106, 121, 125, 130, 133, 166 
Rose Hill Cemetery, Atlanta, GA 149 
Rotundo, Barbara 34,103 
Rowlandson Garrison House 52 
Rowlandson, Joseph 52 
Rowlandson, Mary 52-54 
Rowlandson, Sarah P. 52-53, [42] 
Rowley, MA 57-58 
Roxbury Soldiers' Monument (sculpture) 

133', 136-137 
Rush, William 104 

Saint-Gaudens, Augustus 137 
Sanborn, Franklin B. 156-157, 164 
Sanders Theatre, Harvard University 138 
Sanders, E.P. 89 
Sanguinetto 48 



Sarna, Jonathan D. 90 

Saul of Tarsus in Cilicia 88 

Savage, Major Thomas 41 

Schiller, Friedrich 171 

Scituate, MA 54 

Scottsville Cemetery, Scottsville, TX 130 

Sears, David 116 

Second Church of Boston 72 

Sephardic Jews 71 

Sewall, Samuel 75 

Sewall, Stephen 77 

Sharf, Frederic A. 103 

Sharp, Lieutenant 57-58 

Shaw Memorial (sculpture) 137 

Shearith Israel Synagogue, NYC 91 

Shelley, Percy Bysshe 166 

Shipton, Clifford K. 74 

Siberia 9 

Sidney, Margaret 164, [151] 

Sigourney, Lydia 114, 139 

Silent City on a Hill: Landscapes of Memory 

and Boston's Mount Auburn Cemetery 

102 
Sir Walter Scott (sculpture) 121 
Sleep (sculpture) 115 
Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Concord, MA 

149-171, [151, 158, 160, 163] 
Sloane, David Charles 102-103 
Smillie, James [100, 111] 
Smith, Ellen 90 
Smith, Kate (see Wiggin, Kate) 
Smith, R.A. 50 

Smith, Rev. Sydney 101, 104, 141 
Smith's Illustrated Guide to and Through 

Laurel Hill Cemetery 121 
Smithsonian Institution Research 

Information System (SIRIS) 104 
Soldier's Monument, Concord, MA 155 
South America 73 

South Burying Place, Concord, MA 150 
South Carolina 75, 116, 213 
South Kingston, RI 48, [50] 
Southworth and Hawes 126 
Spain 73 
Spencer, MA 1 
Sphinx (sculpture) 133, [135] 
Spring Grove Cemetery, Cincinnati, OH 

139 
Spring Hill Cemetery, Marlborough, MA 

45 



220 



St. Bernard's Catholic Church, Concord, 

MA 150 
St. Louis, MO 130 
St. Luke's (Winter's) Lutheran Cemetery, 

New Windsor, MD 30, 39, [31] 
St. Peter's Church, Albany, NY 109 
Steinhauser, Carl (Wolgerbon) 146n41 
Stendahl, Krister 88 
Stonington, CT 51 
Story, Justice Joseph 107, 110, 126-127, 130, 

138, [128] 
Story, William Wetmore 106, 126-127, 130, 

137-139, [128] 
Stuart, Gilbert 101 
Sudbury, MA 55-58, 60, [42, 60] 
Sumner, Charles 107, 121 
Swansea, MA 41, 43 

Taft, Lorado 141 

Texas Graveyards 9-10 

Hie Sovereignty and Goodness of God 52 

Thompson, Judge 62 

Thoreau, Henry David v, 150, 163-164, 

[151, 163, 165] 
Thorwaldsen, Bertel 106 
TJiree Centuries of Harvard, 1636-1936 72 
Trollope, Frances "Fanny" 105, 123, 141 
Trumbull, John 101 
Trustees of Reservations 5-6 
"Truth, The" 72 

Turner, Captain William 60, 62, [42, 63] 
Turner's Falls, MA 60,62 

Uniontown, MD 36, 38 

United Community Services of Boston 5 

United States Navy 4 

United States Rangers 63 

University of Texas 9 

Upland South 11 

Utica, NY 114 



Walden Pond, Concord, MA 162 

Walker, John 13-14, 17, 37, [18, 19, 20] 

Wampanoag Indians 41, 43-44, 49, 52-53 

Warfield family 30 

Warfield, Alexander 36 

Warfield, J.H. 36, [28] 

Warren, General Joseph 116 

Washington, D.C. 137, 164 

Washington, George 117, 123 

Waterman, J.W. 130, 139, [131] 

Watters, David H. iv, 81, 83 

Webster, Daniel 113 

Wedgwood, Josiah 106 

Wellesley College 116 

West Brookfield, MA 45 

West, Benjamin 101 

Westminster, Carroll County, MD 37-39, 

[14] 
Wheeler, Captain Thomas 45 
Wliite Captive, The (sculpture) 123 
Whitfield, Stephen J. 90 
"Whole Truth, The" 72 
Wickford, RI 49 

Wiggin, Kate Douglas (Smith) 159-163 
William Ward House 55 
Wilson, Leslie Perrin 150 
Winnimissett Camp 53 
Winslow, Reverend Hubbard 113 
Woodcock Garrison House 58 
Woodcock Historic Burial Ground 53, [42, 

59] 
Woodcock, John 58-59 
Woodcock, Nathaniel 58-59 
Woodlawn Cemetery, Bronx, NY 99, [98] 
Woodlawn Cemetery, Elmira, NY 139 
Woolworth mausoleum, Woodlawn 

Cemetery, Bronx, NY 99 
Worcester, MA 120 
Worman, William M. 36, 38, [29] 
Wright, Eliza J. 37 



Veal, Merry E. 34n 

Venice, Italy 71 

Vermeule, Cornelius C, III 121 

Vermont 115 



Yankee Stadium, NY 99 

Zeigler mausoleum, Woodlawn Cemetery, 
Bronx, NY 99 



Wadsworth Cemetery 57 
Wadsworth, Captain Samuel 56-57 
Wadswoth, Benjamin 57 





#A 


if 










\ 


'4- 

5/ 


^-^ 






-** • 



^"■BBffli 






, 


jm& 




Obituary: Theodore Chase (1912-2003) 

fry Laurel Gabel 

Obituary: Terry Jordan (1938-2003) 

by Richard Francaviglia 

Carving a Path to Freedom: The Life and 
Work of African American Stonecarver 
Sebastian "Boss" Hammond 

by Mary Ann Ashcraft 

Gravemarkers and Memorials of 
King Philip's War 

by Tom and Brenda Malloy 

Judah Monis's Puzzling Gravestone as a 
Reflection of his Enigmatic Identity 

by David Mayer Gradwohl 

In the Bronx with Melville 

by Henry Hughes 

Museum in the Garden: Mount Auburn 
Cemetery and American Sculpture, 
1840-1860 

by Elise Madeline Ciregna 

"In the Palm of Nature's Hand": 
Ralph Waldo Emerson's Address 
at the Consecration of Sleepy Hollow 
Cemetery 

Introduced and edited by 

Ronald A. Bosco and Joel Myerson 

Subject Index, Markers I-XX 

Compiled by Gary Collison 

The Year's Work in Gravemarker 

and Cemetery Studies: 

An International Bibliography 

Compiled by Gary Collison